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Study Of Human Behaviour Is Called

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Study Of Human Behaviour Is Called – What is psychology? The official definition is as follows: Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. * This leaves something to be done.

Presentation on theme: “What is Psychology? Official Definition: Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes.

Study Of Human Behaviour Is Called

2 What is psychology? The official definition is as follows: Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. * Unfortunately, this leaves a lot to be desired. The scientific method requires that a phenomenon be observable and measurable for scientific study. When studying human behavior, most of what motivates behavior cannot be observed. The study of mental processes involves the mind, which is not a physical entity but a metaphysical concept. * As a result, many scientists (physicists, biologists, chemists, etc.) consider psychology to be pseudoscience or pseudoscience. * Although some areas of interest in psychology are not scientifically studied, there are many areas within the field that are very scientifically studied. Psychology may not be a hard science, but it shouldn’t be called a pseudoscience either.

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The field of psychology is primarily an outgrowth of two fields, physiology and philosophy. After the Renaissance, physiology became very influential, so for many centuries philosophy remained the main field concerned with trying to understand the human condition. Below is a brief overview of some of the most important of these ancient scholars.

Hippocrates determined that mental/emotional problems are caused by organic or biological problems. Therefore, the method of treatment of mental diseases in his opinion is the use of drugs. He was one of the first to reject the idea of ​​superstition as a factor. Galen, a Greek-born Roman, gave us the first biological theory of personality with his theory of the four humors. He argued that there are four humors, or bodily fluids, that influence behavior and personality. An imbalance or contamination of one or more of these humors corresponds to a particular human temperament (sanguine or extroverted, dark bile – sad or creative and kind, yellow bile – choleric or energetic, phlegmatic-phlegmatic or trusting). and soft). He was wrong, of course, but the idea that physical characteristics had profound effects on behavior was right on the money. He just got the elements wrong!

Plato believed that individual differences were based on the nature of the human soul, emphasizing metaphysical factors that could not be observed or measured (which made his thesis irrefutable, and which the great master’s would dare to argue with?). He believed that most people were deeply flawed, so those with better, more intelligent souls should form the ruling class, keeping lesser souls in check by force. Of course, he believed that intelligent people like him had better souls, so he felt that people like him were better suited to tell others what to do. Many believe that his ideas form the philosophical basis of authoritarian rule (state-building/dictatorship).

Aristotle believed that people differ in the structure and content of their hearts and minds. He placed human differences within the physical realm, which distinguished him from his mentor Plato. Aristotle argued that because our hearts/minds are different, we necessarily think and behave differently. This means that what people perceive as real is different, and so our versions of reality will always be at least slightly different. He believed that since all people are essentially equal, no one person’s reality can be considered better or more meaningful than another. (Relationship/Democracy)

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Relativism is the idea that truth is relative to the person who perceives the events. This is often considered a dangerous position because it claims that there is no meaning or truth that is better than any other. The basis of law and order in society is the concept that society gives priority to certain facts over others. I can’t do what the state tells me to do, no matter how much I want to – the state’s version of right and wrong is far greater than the individual’s. Aristotle believed that all people should have a voice in its praise rather than one person or a small group of people. (Democracy)

In democratic cultures, Aristotle is given the highest honor among early philosophers in history and philosophy books. Under authoritarianism, scholars are taught that Plato was the greatest of early thinkers.

9 Medieval Ideas The Christian Church in Rome influenced and controlled society in Western and Eastern Europe for most of the 1,000 years between 400 AD. And by 1400 this control was an iron fist, and any ideas that did not agree with church doctrine were quickly rejected and often violently fought against. Therefore, almost all knowledge was reduced to church doctrine and attempts to rationalize God’s existence (or in other words, attempts to prove the unprovable). This movement from physical explanations of reality to metaphysical explanations gave rise to a reactionary parallel movement towards superstitious explanations of mental and emotional problems (demons, devils, magic, etc.), a mindset that had been prevalent in Europe since the ancient Greeks. I have not prevailed. . This backward view did not allow the sciences to develop in a meaningful way until the beginning of the sixteenth century.

Trepanation was a Neolithic treatment that involved cutting a small hole in the skull of a sick person to release evil spirits. Quite primitive, but at least they understood that the seat of the mind is the head/brain and that mental illness is a physical thing. Of course, Hippocrates and Galen were the first to try using drugs (Hippocrates) or bodily fluids (Galen) to effect changes in thought and behavior. Unfortunately, due to the dominance of the Roman Church over the Western world, their ideas carried over to psychotherapy until the European Renaissance.

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In fact, from about the 13th to the 16th century, Europe actually saw a regression to ancient concepts of mental illness as some sort of demonic possession (or the work of witches, vampires, or other mythical demonic creatures). Because many godly men saw women as enticers to sin, many of whom couldn’t keep their best friends in their pants, evil supernatural possession or influence over women. The possibility of blame was high. This behavior was often used to harass women and liberate men.

12 Medieval Thought Although research began in various forms in the late 12th century, it was not officially accepted until 1484, when a pair of Dominican monks wrote a book called Melius Maleficarum, in which witchcraft An attempt was made to refute the arguments against Most were women, and instructing magistrates in the procedures to be used to find, condemn and destroy them. The book included a letter of approval from the theology faculty of the University of Cologne and a papal bull (imprint) by the Pope, which truly legitimized this terrible book. It served as an investigative manual for local authorities throughout Europe, and the end result was that women who were unpopular or considered immoral (prostitutes, adulteresses, or mentally ill) were first arrested. Tortured by interrogators, and once broken, confessions were made that were not. Done, staked.

It wasn’t until the late 18th century that the idea of ​​mental hospitals and rehabilitation replaced the idea of ​​imprisonment for people with mental illnesses. About 100,000 people were killed during the Inquisition, mostly women and the mentally ill. René Descartes was a religious man who believed that there are two aspects of human existence that are separate but can influence each other. This concept became known as dualism, and it remained a central focus of philosophy and science for the next few centuries.

14 Renaissance Thinkers Galileo Galileo took the first step toward a scientific approach when he proposed that everything in the universe has a legal and orderly explanation. Thus everything can be perceived and understood, if only a thinker can find a way to do so. This idea, known as mechanism, involved the idea that truth and knowledge could be achieved through the right mechanism. This is the first foundation of modern science.

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15 Renaissance Thinkers. Sir Francis Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism, although if John Locke could say so, he would have said it differently: many scholars claim that Bacon initiated fundamentalism, but Locke actually formalized it. and gave it a name. Bacon’s writings established and popularized the Baconian method (the second foundation of modern science), which Locke extracted and formalized into what is now known as the scientific method. Bacon called for a systematic approach to the study of everything natural. In fact, they were both thieves. The experimenter was originally created

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