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Parkinson Disease Damages What Part Of The Brain

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Parkinson Disease Damages What Part Of The Brain – When people talk about Parkinson’s, they’re probably referring to effects on the substantia nigra. But did you know that there are other parts of the brain affected by this condition?

Parkinson’s disease is a disease that causes the gradual loss of dopamine-producing brain cells in the substantia nigra—a part of the brain just above where vision converges in the center. These cells produce and release the neurotransmitter dopamine, which plays an important role in converting thoughts about actions into actions.

Parkinson Disease Damages What Part Of The Brain

Although this description of the condition is useful for briefly explaining Parkinson’s, the full story is much more complex. Over the past 30 years, it has been recognized that Parkinson’s causes non-motor symptoms, such as changes in sleep, smell, and even the way we think, which can affect other parts of the brain.

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Scientists are now looking at the common effects of the condition on the brain in an effort to better understand why people have different symptoms. Research can lead us beyond symptoms to new treatments.

The substantia nigra, a part of the brain located at the top of the spinal cord, focuses on more of how Parkinson’s affects the brain.

There are both right and left sides of the substantia nigra, with one side often affected before the other. Because of this, people with Parkinson’s often experience symptoms on one side of their body, especially at first. In fact, this characteristic of the condition often helps distinguish Parkinson’s from other similar conditions.

When confirming a diagnosis, it is the substantia nigra that pathologists look for changes at the end of life in brains donated for research. The loss of dopamine-producing cells in this part of the brain and the presence of deposits of alpha-synuclein protein (called Lewy bodies) have been hallmarks of Parkinson’s for years.

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You can read more about the alpha-synuclein protein and how it plays a role in Parkinson’s progression in a previous blog post:

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Parkinson’s causes movement symptoms because the substantia nigra is part of a circuit called the basal ganglia, which the brain uses to convert thoughts about movements into actions.

Structure of basal ganglia. Andrew Gillies, Michael Hagstrom, Patrick J. Adapted from work by Gillianard, CC BY-SA 3.0 from Lynch et al.

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The substantia nigra is the main controller of the circuit, often associated with the use of the chemical dopamine, but other chemicals (glutamate, GABA) also communicate between other parts of the basal ganglia.

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The balance of signals sent between these structures allows us to control movement. But symptoms appear as Parkinson’s progresses and dopamine-producing brain cells are lost in the substantia nigra. Without enough dopamine, it becomes more difficult to initiate and maintain activities, leading to symptoms such as slowness of movement, stiffness, and coldness. An imbalance of signals in the basal ganglia means that people with Parkinson’s can experience what is called a resting state.

But despite this definition of Parkinson’s found in many books, it is now known that the changes are not limited to the substantia nigra and basal ganglia.

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In Parkinson’s disease, as the condition progresses, other areas of the brain beyond the substantia nigra are affected. Higher brain changes associated with non-motor symptoms may later affect people with Parkinson’s disease and often have a significant impact on quality of life.

For example, symptoms affecting thinking and thinking are associated with the presence of Lewy bodies in the largest part of the brain – the cerebral cortex.

It is also believed to be involved in symptoms affecting emotions and pain, and hallucinations are thought to be caused by similar changes in the inferior temporal gyrus, the part of the brain involved in the process we see.

But research into the spread of Parkinson’s through these areas and how we can prevent it (for example by protecting brain cells, or (targeting alpha-synuclein) is only one side of the story. Research into where Parkinson’s starts and the effects before it reaches these stages.

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The presence of non-motor symptoms months and perhaps years before physical symptoms such as tremors and slowness of movement points to the presence of other changes in the body long before the loss of dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra. These early signs can help researchers predict who will develop Parkinson’s disease, which could help develop new and better treatments.

Researchers have found that areas of the brain under the substantia nigra show a loss of cells in Parkinson’s. Cells in these regions have been found to have clusters of alpha-synuclein protein, which can develop before those in the substantia nigra.

Patrick J. Adapted from Lynch’s work, ‘The prion hypothesis in Parkinson’s disease: Break to the future’, CC BY 2.5

Some researchers suggest that these findings suggest that Parkinson’s disease spreads from the brain to the substantia nigra. In fact, for some, there is evidence that Parkinson’s can begin in the mouth and travel up the substantia nigra to the vagus nerve, which connects the mouth to the brain.

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Parkinson’s break staging is based on the belief that Parkinson’s can spread to the brain and progress throughout the brain.

Although there is still some debate about the onset of Parkinson’s disease and the more complex concepts of how Parkinson’s spreads, efforts are being made to understand how and why different parts of the brain are affected, with motor and non-motor symptoms contributing to better development. treatments.

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Tesla Should Worry About Toyota Forget the 4680; This is the rock we’ve been waiting for. The substantia nigra is the brain stem that is part of your basal ganglia. Although small, this structure is important in how your brain controls your body’s movements. It also plays a role in chemical signaling in your brain, which affects learning, emotions, judgment, decision-making, and other processes.

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There is a substantia nigra on each side of your brain. This small structure helps control the functions and communication between different parts of the brain.

The substantia nigra (SN) is a part of your brain that helps control your movements. It’s part of the basal ganglia, a group of structures that make connections and circuits throughout your brain. The substantia nigra is important in how you function and how it affects your brain chemistry.

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The substantia nigra (sub-stan-chee-uh ni-grah) is part of your basal ganglia, which connects to different parts of your brain. It produces dopamine, which controls muscle movement and tone.

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The substantia nigra has two distinct parts, each with a different role and relationship. The two categories are:

The SN is located in your midbrain. As the name suggests, this part of your brain is in the center of your brain. It is just above your brain and leads to where your skull meets your neck and connects to your neck.

Although the term “substantia nigra” refers to one of these structures, there are actually two. They are on every side of your midbrain, each one

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