Leading Cause Of Preventable Death – Probability of excess deaths from five major causes of death in metropolitan and suburban counties – United States, 2010-2017
Issue/Situation: A 2017 report found that non-urban areas (often referred to as rural areas) have higher rates of likely (or preventable) deaths than metropolitan areas. I understand. This report uses the 2013 National Center’s six levels to increase geographic detail and shows the country’s excess mortality in the five leading causes of death in suburban and metropolitan areas in 2010 and 2014. , regional, and state estimates are compared. National Institute for Health Statistics (NCHS) County-Urban Classification Scheme and Annualized Mortality Rate (APC) and Probability of Death Estimates for Additional Years (2010-2017). Trends were tested with both linear and quadratic terms.
Leading Cause Of Preventable Death
System Description: Using U.S. population mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System, we calculated the probability of death from her five leading causes of death for a person under 80 years of age. Using the state’s NCHS urban-rural classification scheme, according to the urban-rural classification of the county of residence of the deceased (1: large city (most urban), 2: marginal city, 3: medium city, 4: small city) Deaths were classified. urban, 5: metropolitan, 6: non-urban (mostly rural)). Estimated excess mortality is defined as the number of deaths among people under age 80 that exceeds what would be expected if all states had all-cause mortality rates equal to the standard state (i.e., the three states with the lowest mortality rates). Ta. High-risk mortality rates were calculated separately for the nation’s 6 metropolitan counties, the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services public health regions, and the District of Columbia’s 50 states and territories.
What Do The People Of The World Die From?
Results: From 2010 to 2017, excess mortality from unintentional injury (APC: 11.2%) and cancer (APC: 9.1%) among U.S. adults aged 80 and older increased, but remained stable for heart disease. Met. (APC: 1.1%), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (APC: 1.7%), and stroke (APC: 0.3). Across the United States, mortality rates for the five leading causes of death remained unchanged from 2010 to 2017 across all cities. When six categories of urban and rural areas were evaluated, mortality rates were consistently higher in most urban areas (non-mortality rates) than in urban areas with the highest school age (metropolitan areas). The probability of dying from heart disease increased in metropolitan areas (APC: 2.5%) and decreased in metropolitan areas (APC: 1.1%). The odds of dying from cancer decreased in all county types, but the greatest decreases were in metropolitan area (APC: 16.1%) and metropolitan area (APC: 15.1%) counties. The odds of death from five major causes increased across all county types: central metropolitan areas (APC: 18.3%), peripheral metropolitan areas (APC: 17.1%), and medium-sized cities (APC: 17.1%). APC: 11.1%). county. The probability of exceeding the CLRD decreased in metropolitan (APC: 5.6%) but increased in most urban (APC: 3.7%) and nonmetropolitan (APC: 3.6%) counties. Across all county types, four major trends in stroke mortality rates were higher (i.e., later decreased), with the exception of metropolitan areas, where there was no change. Mortality rates by urban-rural classification between public health regions and states from 2010 to 2017.
Description: Nationally, from 2010 to 2017, the five-cause mortality rate reached 5% in most states, public health regions, and localities. From 2010 to 2017, the gap in mortality risks (cancer, heart disease, CLRD) widened between the most rural and urban counties, unintentional injuries decreased, and stroke remained relatively stable. did. From 2010 to 2017, urban and peri-urban counties (metropolitan and peri-urban, medium-size and small cities) had higher unintentional injury mortality rates, which were already high (approximately 55%) among percentiles. The difference has narrowed. Excess mortality in suburban and metropolitan areas.
Public Health Initiatives: Regularly tracking stratified mortality rates in urban and rural counties can help public health departments and policy makers identify and monitor public health problems and address them in these areas. helps reduce potential mortality.
Approximately one-fifth of the U.S. population (60 million people) lives in nonurban (rural) areas, which cover 97% of the U.S. land area (1). Metropolitan areas and metropolitan areas have different demographic, environmental, economic, and social characteristics that influence the distribution of adverse health outcomes and associated risk factors. Non-urban areas have higher rates of smoking, hypertension, obesity, and lack of leisure-time physical activity (2). Approximately 17% of the U.S. population lives below the poverty line, making $24,600 (3) for a family of two adults and two children living in the suburbs as of 2017. However, 31% of non-metro counties are concentrated in poverty, with at least one-fifth of the population living in poverty, compared to 15% to 19% in metropolitan areas (4) . Access to preventive services and health care is even more limited in rural areas. Residents of non-metropolitan counties are known to have less access to health care and lower quality of care (2). In general, large cities have a higher density and diversity of health care providers than suburban areas ( 5 , 6 ).
Preventable Deaths And Deprivation
In 2017, the five leading causes of death in the United States were heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD), and stroke, accounting for 1,723,085 deaths (approximately 61% of all deaths) (7). ). Four out of five leading causes of death are chronic diseases, two of which (heart disease and cancer) accounted for approximately 44% of deaths in 2017 (7). Probable excess mortality (also known as preventable mortality) is defined as the mortality rate for people under age 80 if all states’ all-cause mortality rates were equal to (above the target value for) the standard state. , the three states with the lowest interest rates) (8, 9). To provide health equity points, states are compared at the same benchmark rate, regardless of population differences.
Many factors contribute to mortality, and public health interventions alone cannot prevent excess deaths. For example, people in certain regions may have characteristics that increase mortality rates, such as long commutes to specialized or emergency care, or exposure to special environmental hazards, as well as geographic genetic concentrations. there is. Prevention is multidisciplinary, including broader social determinants of health (such as education, employment, and housing), improving public health programs that support healthy behaviors and neighborhoods, and improving access to quality health care. This is possible through a wide range of programs. .
Previously, we analyzed and compared 2010 and 2014 National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) mortality data to explore differences in the five leading causes of death between suburban and large cities in the United States ( 11). Estimating the probability that a county exceeds the use of binary categories of urban and metropolitan areas may mask important differences between urban and rural areas. For example, suburban counties exhibit considerable variation in residential patterns and population density. Some areas include small towns, while others are classified as border counties without urban areas. Even within large cities, health measures can vary considerably. Suburbs have significantly better health outcomes than urban centers (5). To account for these disparities, deaths were classified into six levels of the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme ( 8 ).
This report presents estimates, percentages, and annual changes in probability of death by category for five leading causes of death in urban and rural counties from 2010 to 2017. Linear and quadratic trends from 2010 to 2017 are also calculated. Regularly tracking mortality rates in peri-urban areas can help public health authorities identify emerging health problems, monitor specific problems, and intervene to reduce mortality rates in these areas. There is a possibility.
Pdf] Potentially Preventable Deaths From The Five Leading Causes Of Death — United States, 2008–2010
The five leading causes of death (heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, CLRD, and stroke) in urban and rural counties from 2010 to 2017 according to NVSS (https:///nchs/nvss/index.htm) ) Mortality data for U.S. residents. Urban-rural categories were defined using the NCHS 2013 county urban-rural classification scheme (Figure 1). The decedent’s place of residence was used to determine urban and rural counties. These categories range from most urban to most rural: 1) metropolitan (mostly urban), 2) peri-urban, 3) medium-sized city, 4) small city, 5) metropolitan, and 6) non-urban (mostly urban). is the countryside). Although the terms metropolitan area and metropolitan area are used in this report, the terms rural and suburban are used interchangeably in other settings and publications as well as the terms city and metropolitan area. is common. Probable excess mortality rates were calculated separately for two major cities (metropolitan and metropolitan areas) and four major cities, as well as for the metropolitan and nonmetropolitan categories.
The analysis was limited to deaths from the main cause of death among the five main causes of death.
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