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How Does Technology Affect Globalization

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How Does Technology Affect Globalization – OECD labor markets have changed dramatically over the past decades as new technologies have been adopted and economies have become more interconnected.

The job mix has changed dramatically as traditionally middle-skilled jobs, from machinists to office workers, have declined in many countries relative to high- and low-skilled jobs, labor markets have become more polarized and fueled by concerns about growth. Inequality At the same time, employment continued to shift from manufacturing to the service sector, continuing the long-term trend of deindustrialization.

How Does Technology Affect Globalization

The latest OECD Employment Outlook shows how widespread this phenomenon of labor polarization is. Based on data from 24 countries, the analysis shows that between 1995 and 2015 in all but two countries (Hungary and the Czech Republic) there was job polarization between higher and lower skilled jobs.

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But it’s not all bad news. For example, in many countries, while the number of middle-skilled jobs has declined, high-skilled jobs have grown faster than low-skilled jobs. On average across the OECD, high occupations gained more than the 7-9 percent of employment lost by middle-skilled occupations. Moreover, these trends have had a significant impact on overall employment growth, despite concerns about mass technological unemployment due to digitization.

The polarization of the labor market can be partly explained by the shift away from manufacturing, a sector historically characterized by a high number of middle-skilled jobs, and towards services.

Industries rather than a reduction in production. 1995-2007 In the OECD [1], the share of intermediate skills fell from 42% to 37%. Two-thirds of this decline can be explained by the decline in middle-skilled jobs across all industries, and the remaining third by deindustrialization.

The polarization of job skills is associated more with technological progress than with globalization. In particular, the growth of communication and information technology has been associated with a decline in the number of middle-skilled jobs in manufacturing. But this is not just a story of ICT displacing middle-skilled workers: if so, technological progress will be associated with a decline in middle-skilled workers relative to high- and low-skilled workers. In fact, increasing ICT use is only associated with a decline in medium-skilled jobs relative to high-skilled jobs, suggesting that part of the impact of technology may be the addition or replacement of low-skilled workers by high-skilled workers. be through Workers too.

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ICT adoption may also have contributed to labor force polarization, which slowed employment growth in manufacturing but not in services. Overall, however, the diffusion of ICT has had a significant impact on employment growth across the economy.

The role of globalization in explaining polarization is much less clear. In particular, there is no indication that increased trade between countries has significantly changed the occupational composition of industries. Increased import penetration from China is said to be associated with lower employment growth in manufacturing (though not in the services sector), consistent with several country-by-country studies in recent years.

How should policymakers respond to these structural changes? First, employees need to be helped to develop the right skills for the future. On the one hand, primary education, including primary education, should equip all students not only with literacy, numeracy and problem-solving skills, but also with basic ICT skills and soft skills (e.g. speaking, communication, teamwork, leadership, independent learning). (organization, etc.). On the other hand, those already in the labor market need better opportunities to maintain their skills, improve their skills and/or retrain their professional life.

Conversely, low-skilled people are the most likely to experience continuous change, but they are also the least likely to be trained. In fact, they typically face additional learning barriers due to greater risk aversion, tighter credit constraints, and lack of access to information. In addition, employers are less likely to hire low-skilled workers. Developing policy solutions that reduce barriers to learning and encourage employers to provide more training is an important step in preventing further increases in inequality.

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Second, policies and social protection measures to get people back to work must be updated to help people cope with damaging changes and facilitate labor mobility. An effective activation system should encourage jobseekers to: actively work; improve their employability (e.g. through training); and expanding the range of opportunities to find and stay in suitable jobs (eg through job search assistance). Activation measures should be proactive, taking into account the potential risk of job loss in different sectors and providing workers with adequate information and assistance in employment before possible job loss (eg a group during the notice period before relocation).

Social benefits should be designed to provide adequate protection for workers while reducing incentives to work. One way to ensure that all workers are protected, regardless of industry or occupation, is to link benefits to individuals rather than jobs so they can be moved from one job to another. Some countries are experimenting with the idea of ​​replacing existing social security systems with a basic income guarantee, such as unconditional income transfers without means testing or other forms of public transfers without work requirements.

But unless taxes are raised significantly, the level of such a basic income will be too low to lift people out of poverty. In addition, changing the current regime to a basic income regime will create many disadvantages, especially among current targeted benefit recipients, which casts doubt on the practicality of the new system.

Finally, structural changes can be easily and effectively resolved if the social partners work closely together in a spirit of cooperation and mutual trust. At the same time, social partners can play an important role: adapting labor market rules, training and social protection systems to new challenges; finding a compromise between employers’ need for flexibility and workers’ need for security; to achieve a fair distribution of productive profits; and helping those displaced by technology or business get back to work.

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[1] The OECD average includes Australia, Chile, Estonia, Iceland, Israel, Korea, Latvia, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Poland and Turkey.

This shows how your post appears on social media. The initial post will be different for different social networks. This report examines the positive and negative effects of globalization. When we talk about this, we mean the process of self-integration of countries due to the influence of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) and non-governmental organizations (INGOs). It usually includes economic integration and political interaction as it relates to the cultural and social aspects of different countries.

Researchers distinguish many aspects of globalization, among which they mainly emphasize political, social and economic models. The modern political system depends on the coordination and cooperation of different states. National partnerships were created primarily to tackle global problems such as wars, disease, hunger and environmental pollution. Social behavior refers to human interaction because social media and the Internet allow people to communicate without barriers. For example, everyone knows about the American dream, Russian ballet or Chinese professional chess players, because information travels very quickly. The economic aspect is related to business enterprises. They have headquarters around the world, allowing them to influence specific domestic policies.

This report presents a comprehensive approach to global integration, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of its global impact. It explains how our world has become a global village where anyone with internet access can purchase products and services. People can also use telecommuting without having to travel or live in a foreign country.

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In addition, this article highlights the negative and positive effects of globalization in developed and developing countries. Student exchange is very valuable for both of these groups. It is possible to study online and obtain a bachelor’s degree without going to live in a foreign country. Many business people use this available means of interaction to communicate with managers and leaders of successful companies to invest their money and discuss potential profits and dividends.

This article also discusses disadvantages such as job turnover or pay differentials. Job search has become an international trend. Workers from developing countries have suffered the most, as employers can hire lower-paid immigrants. Several thousand local companies go bankrupt every year due to price fluctuations. Countries with access to cheap raw materials and labor are selling their produce at lower prices through online platforms. This leads to the collapse of various companies, which are pressured to cut prices and earn minimal profits.

Our fundamental question is how to take advantage of the advantages of international integration and reduce its disadvantages. The positives obviously outweigh the negatives, but it seems to have a major impact on everyday life. For example, in some developing countries, a couple works 24/7 part-time to pay their mortgage, car loan, etc.

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