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How Does Stroke Affect The Nervous System

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How Does Stroke Affect The Nervous System – A variety of disorders can develop in the nervous system that can affect the clients you care for. Disorders can cause different problems depending on their cause and the area of ​​the nervous system involved.

One of the most common disorders of the nervous system is stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident or brain attack. This occurs when the brain becomes damaged due to being deprived of oxygen-rich blood.

How Does Stroke Affect The Nervous System

There are two main types of stroke: an ischemic stroke, which occurs when there is a blockage in an artery, and a hemorrhagic stroke, which occurs when an artery in the brain leaks into the brain tissue.

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This occurs when fat and cholesterol build up inside a blood vessel in the brain known as a cerebral blood vessel and begin to block arterial blood flow.

Another mechanism of ischemic stroke is embolism. This occurs when a blood clot breaks off from an atherosclerotic plaque in an artery outside the brain, breaks free, and travels to the brain, where it lodges in a cerebral artery.

Factors that may increase a client’s risk of having a thrombotic or embolic stroke include anything associated with atherosclerosis, such as smoking, high blood pressure, or hypertension; diabetes; And a diet rich in saturated fat.

Sometimes a small blood clot may block a brain artery for a short time before it dissolves, allowing normal blood flow to be restored.

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So if it resolves on its own within 24 hours, usually minutes to hours, it is called a transient ischemic attack or TIA for short. The main risk factor for TIA is atherosclerosis.

Stroke and seizures are both medical conditions that can affect the nervous system. Stroke occurs when part of the brain loses blood supply. There are two main types of stroke: an ischemic stroke, which occurs when there is a blockage in an artery, usually by a thrombus or embolus; and hemorrhagic stroke, which occurs when an artery in the brain bursts and blood leaks into the brain.

Stroke may result in permanent disability, such as hemiplegia or aphasia. Acute care focuses on prompt re-establishment of blood flow and supportive measures, while long-term care may include speech, physical, and occupational therapy.

Seizures, on the other hand, are sudden, abnormal electrical discharges in the brain that can cause changes in movement, behavior, and consciousness. These can be focal seizures, meaning they affect a small area of ​​one hemisphere of the brain, or generalized seizures, which affect both hemispheres and include tonic-clonic seizures and absence seizures.

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Copyright © 2023 Elsevier, its licensors and contributors. All rights reserved, including text and data mining, AI training and similar technologies.

The USMLE® is a joint program of the Federation of State Medical Boards (FSMB) and the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). COMLEX-USA® National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners, Inc. is a registered trademark of. NCLEX-RN® National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. is a registered trademark of. The test name and other trademarks belong to their respective trademark owners. Any trademark owner is not endorsed by or affiliated with this website. Stroke has a debilitating effect on the human body and a serious negative impact on society, affecting one in six people globally. According to the World Health Organization, 15 million people suffer from stroke every year around the world. Of these, 5 million die and another 5 million become permanently disabled. Motor and cognitive deficits such as hemiparesis, paralysis, chronic pain, and psychomotor and behavioral symptoms may persist for a long time and prevent the patient from fully reintegrating into society, and hence add to the expensive health care burden of stroke. Can continue adding. Regenerative medicine using stem cells appears to be a panacea for stroke sequelae. Stem cell-based therapy aids in neuro-regeneration and neuroprotection for neurological recovery in patients. However, the use of stem cells as therapy in stroke patients still requires a lot of research at both the basic and translational levels. Apart from the fact that the mode of action of stem cells in reversing the symptoms is not clear, there are several clinical parameters that need to be addressed before establishing stem cell therapy in stroke, such as the quantity of stem cells to be administered. Type, number of stem cells, timing of dose, whether dose booster is required, route of administration, etc. There are also upcoming possibilities for cell-free therapy using exosomes derived from stem cells. Several preclinical studies are underway aimed at answering these questions. Despite still being in the development stage, stem cell therapy holds great promise for neurological rehabilitation in patients suffering from stroke.

Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability and mortality, with 102 million disability-adjusted life years lost per year (Steven, 2008). The Global Burden of Disease, Injury and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2015) reported a shift from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases such as cerebrovascular events. While the incidence of stroke is declining in the developed world, it continues to peak in low- and middle-income countries like India due to demographic changes and rapid changes in the socio-economic environment (Thomson, 1998). The estimated adjusted incidence of stroke has been reported to be between 84–262/100,000 in rural areas and 334–424/100,000 in urban India (Wichterle et al., 2002; Nagai et al., 2010).

The only neuroprotective agent developed for stroke in clinical use is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA), which is used for thrombolysis and has a therapeutic duration of only 3–4.5 hours. Thus, there is a strong need to develop treatments that extend beyond the first few hours after stroke onset. This requires a paradigm shift from neuroprotection to neuro-recovery using new strategies that treat injured or damaged brain tissue.

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Despite numerous neurorehabilitation treatments, most stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability, particularly upper limb dysfunction. Physiotherapy including exercise, motor learning principles, motor cortex stimulation (using rTMS, tDCS) and assistive technologies helps to restore functional movements (Tae-hoon and Yoon-seok, 2012). The emergence of regenerative medicine has sparked interest among readers and physicians in studying its potential. Over the past decade, tremendous work has been done exploring the potential of various types of cells such as adult stem cells, umbilical cord blood and cells from adipose tissue and skin.

Recovery after stroke has been explained as a rich set of events that include cellular, molecular, genetic, demographic, and behavioral components. Such factors have been demonstrated as covariates in clinical trials of restorative agents with a strong neurobiological basis. Advances in functional neuroimaging and brain mapping methods have provided a valuable parallel system for data acquisition for stroke recovery in humans. The recovery of a person affected by stroke will largely depend on the size of the lesion, the internal environment of the brain injury, and the age and concomitant conditions of the patient. In general, the first era includes the first hours after stroke, when rapid changes in blood flow, edema, pro-inflammatory mechanisms occur. Another era concerns spontaneous behavioral recovery, which begins a few days after the onset of stroke and lasts for several weeks. During this era, the brain is stimulated to initiate repair as events related to endogenous repair reach peak levels, suggesting a golden period for the introduction of exogenous restorative therapies. The third era begins weeks to months after stroke, when spontaneous behavioral gains typically reach a plateau, and this stable state responds to multiple restorative interventions (Steven, 2008).

Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all types of cells. It appears that exogenously administered cells stimulate endogenous regenerative processes and do not replace damaged brain tissue. It was once believed that intravenously administered cells would home to the damaged site and replace dead neurons, but the current ideology for the use of these cells claims that these cells secrete multiple trophic factors such as VEGF, IGF, BDNF, and tissue Releases growth factors. Which stimulates the plasticity and recovery mechanisms of the brain. Regulation of growth factors, prevention of ongoing cell death, and increased host-graft synaptic connectivity are some of the common pathways through which endothelial stem cells act as “chaperones”. With regard to timing of transplantation, preclinical studies have shown that cell therapy enhances functional recovery after acute, subacute, and chronic stroke (Bliss et al., 2010), but few studies have varied according to model system and cell. Have compared different time windows with different results. type was studied. All possible modes of action of stem cells are described in Figure 1.

The unique capacity of stem cells for self-renewal and differentiation has been used to develop cell-based therapies for various neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke. There have been several studies, which will be discussed in the upcoming sections, that report the use of stem cells in the treatment of various diseases. Various types of stem cells have been used in these studies, such as adult stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells), embryonic stem cells, and the newest type, induced pluripotent stem cells. In addition to using different types of stem cells, researchers have also reported specific modes of action to support their studies.

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