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How Does Smoking Affect Your Bones

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How Does Smoking Affect Your Bones

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By Umberto Tarantino Umberto Tarantino Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2 , Ida Cariati Ida Cariati Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 3 , Chiara Greggi Chiara Greggi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 3 , Elena Gasbarra Elena Gasbarra Scilit. org Google Scholar 1, 2 , Alberto Belluati Alberto Belluati Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4 , Luigi Ciolli Luigi Ciolli Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5 , Giulio Maccauro Giulio Maccauro Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar Preprints.org Google Scholar Momolic 6 . org Google Scholar 7 , Simone Ripanti Simone Ripanti Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 8 , Francesco Falez Francesco Falez Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5 and Maria Luisa Brandi Maria Luisa Brandi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 9, *

Department of Clinical and Translational Medicine, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy

Why Might Smoking And Drinking Alcohol Raise The Risk Of Osteoporosis?

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Agostino Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy

Received: 18 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021

Cigarette smoking has a negative effect on the bone system, as it reduces bone mass and increases the risk of fractures through its direct or indirect effects on bone repair. Current evidence shows that smoking reduces bone turnover, making bones more susceptible to osteoporosis and fractures. In addition, cigarette smoke is known to have a negative effect on fracture healing, as the number of cigarettes consumed per day and years of exposure have been shown to be beneficial, even the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Smoking is also known to cause many medical/surgical complications resulting in longer hospital stays and increased substance use. Therefore, quitting smoking is very effective in preventing the onset of cancer. However, even when it ends, some of the effects linger decades later. Based on this evidence, the purpose of our review is to evaluate the effect of smoking on the bone system, especially on bone fractures, and to identify the pathophysiological mechanisms related to the healing of the broken As smoking is a major public health problem, it is necessary to understand the relationship between cigarette smoking and the development of arthritis in order to identify new targets for intervention.

Cigarette smoking is known to have a negative effect on many systems of the human body, and is considered one of the main risk factors for the occurrence of non-communicable diseases, which kill nearly 6 million people every year [1, 2, 3] , 4] . In addition, although the number of smokers has decreased each year, the number of smokers has increased due to population growth [5].

The Toxic Truth About Smoking

In recent years, many studies have been conducted on the relationship between smoking and cardiovascular diseases, confirming the relationship between smoking and cardiovascular disease, periodontitis, osteoporosis , and fracture damage [6]. This relationship is related to the negative effects of smoking on bone turnover, with increased bone fragility [7, 8]. In addition, several studies have shown how long-term smoking is associated with decreased muscle function and sarcopenia [9, 10].

Based on this evidence, in this review we have examined the recently published literature and summarized the scientific evidence on the effects of smoking on bone, with the aim of analyzing the collected in relation to molecular and molecular methods.

Cigarette smoke is known to have negative effects on bone integrity, as a positive correlation has been shown between the number of cigarettes smoked and the years of exposure [11, 12]. Currently, it is not clear which of the various toxins in cigarette smoke are responsible for the negative effects of smoking on bone metabolism. However, many researchers believe that these negative effects are caused by nicotine, one of the main components of cigarette smoke [13].

Cigarette smoking is one of the main social risk factors for the development of bone diseases (such as osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, osteomalacia, and diabetes mellitus), which impairs bone turnover. for many reasons, including bone turnover by osteoblasts, growth. bone resorption by osteoclasts or a combination of both [12, 14, 15]. In particular, the first idea about the relationship between cigarette smoking and osteoporosis came from a study done in 1976, which showed that the onset of advanced idiopathic osteoporosis occurs before the age of 65 and higher percentage of smokers and non-smokers. 16]. Later, the effect of smoking on bone mineral density (BMD) was confirmed by several epidemiological studies. In 2002 Gerdhem and Obrant evaluated BMD using dual energy X-ray absorptimetry (DEXA) in a group of 19, 500, and 14,000 subjects reporting BMD values. very little in the female neck and little in the lumbar spine [11] ]. Recently, a five-year longitudinal study was conducted on 833 young people, between the ages of 18 and 20, assessing bone density and geometry using computed tomography height measurement [17]. Rudäng et al. It was reported that men who started smoking during adolescence had lower BMD in several domains, including less trabecular bone and less cortical transition zone, than their non-smoking counterparts, indicating that starting to smoke affects bone growth in adulthood. 17].

It’s Never Too Late To Break Free From Smoking

It is generally accepted that BMD loss is related to hormonal imbalance, aging, environmental factors, lifestyle, and genetics [18]. Bączyk et al. A study was conducted to determine which sociodemographic and clinical demographics represent risk factors for BMD reduction in 41 female twins with different levels of their smoking habits [19]. Studies have shown that women who smoke one pack of cigarettes a day during adulthood have a bone loss of 5-10% during menopause, which is enough to increase the risk of rupture [19]. Similarly, an epidemiological study by Noale et al. in 2012 in post-menopausal women showed that smokers had a higher risk than non-smokers [20].

The pathophysiological mechanisms by which smoking affects bone health remain unclear, as smoking has many direct and indirect effects on bone remodeling (Table 1).

Among the indirect mechanisms by which smoke affects bones, body weight varies [21]. Indeed, several studies in the literature have shown an inverse relationship between smoking and body weight [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. The effects of smoking on body weight are caused by nicotine, which suppresses appetite and promotes an increase in the concentration of dopamine and serotonin, by inhibiting food intake [25]. In addition, nicotine appears to have a direct effect on fat mass, leading to an increase in lipid oxidation and, therefore, a decrease in body mass index (BMI) [26] . According to Wong and colleagues, changes in body weight due to tobacco consumption may decrease BMD and increase fracture risk through three possible mechanisms: (i) decrease the weight of the mechanical load on the bone, and it will decrease. to stimulate osteogenic; (ii) in smokers the reduction of adipose tissue is followed by a decrease in the conversion of androgens to estrogens, which are known to have positive effects on bones; and finally (iii) in smokers the decrease in leptin levels results in smaller bones [27]. The association between cigarette smoking and sarcopenia has also been shown to have an indirect effect. Compounds in cigarette smoke have been shown to degrade muscle tissue proteins [28, 29].

The parathyroid hormone (PTH)-vitamin D axis, which is important in determining BMD and calcium homeostasis, is affected by smoking [ 30 ]. PTH regulates blood calcium levels in the bones

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