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How Does Poverty And Hiv Affect The Community

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How Does Poverty And Hiv Affect The Community – Guaranteeing women’s land and property rights is one of the most powerful, yet most neglected, tools to halt the feminization of the HIV and AIDS epidemic. “

Worldwide, at the end of 2011, 34 million people were infected with HIV. Sub-Saharan Africa is worst affected, with 1 in 20 adults (4.9 percent) infected with HIV and accounting for 69 percent of global HIV cases. . About 5 million people in South, Southeast and East Asia are living with HIV. After sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe and Central Asia are the most affected regions, accounting for 1.0 percent of adults with HIV in 2011 (UNAIDS, 2012).

How Does Poverty And Hiv Affect The Community

Globally, the number of new infectious diseases is decreasing; In 2011, the number of people infected with HIV (2.5 million) was 20 percent less than in 2001. Since 2001, the Caribbean (42 percent) and sub-Saharan African countries have seen the largest declines in HIV infections. (25 percent). However, since 2001, the number of new infections in the Middle East and North Africa has increased by more than 35 percent (from 27,000 to 37,000). In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, HIV infection rates began to rise in the late 2000s after having been relatively stable for several years.

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HIV affects women in all regions. In sub-Saharan Africa, women account for 58 percent of HIV cases and bear the greatest burden of care for those infected (ibid). Women’s equal access to education and employment and vulnerability to violence increase their physiological vulnerability to HIV. Because of social and economic inequality between men and women and their low status in the family and community, many women have little opportunity to discuss sex, demand condom use, or take other measures to protect themselves from HIV. there).

Protected rights to land and housing empower women socially and economically. In Nepal, researchers have found that women who own land tend to have a significant “final say” in household decisions (Allendorf, 2007). Research in Brazil has shown that women’s rights to safe space are associated with increased women’s ability to participate in family decisions (Mardon, 2005).

Conversely, insecure land tenure and women’s property rights may contribute to the spread of HIV infection and weaken their ability to combat the consequences of STIs. Land is an important asset for the rural poor, and in many countries men have rights and control over land. As a result, women are often economically dependent on men, have no secure jobs, and therefore have little bargaining power.

Women’s lack of ability to shop at home and in communities can lead to unsafe sex and thus HIV infection. A South African study found that women who were abused or dominated by their partners were more likely to contract HIV than women in non-violent households. A study of 1,366 South African women in Soweto found that women who were beaten by their husbands or boyfriends were 48 percent more likely to contract HIV than those who were not. Those who are emotionally or financially dominated by their partner are 52 percent more likely to be infected than those who are not (UNFPA, citing Dunkle, 2004).

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As the primary guardians of children, women may feel the need to be subservient to their children’s well-being. Studies in Kenya and Zambia have shown that young married women have a higher risk of infection than unmarried women of the same age. This was especially the case when they married older men because of the weaker bargaining power in these relationships (Glynn et al., 2001).

Research shows that women are more economically independent, allowing them to leave relationships when necessary, make financial decisions that alleviate or prevent poverty, and pay for health care and services for themselves and their families (Aidstar, cited by Drimie, 2002). This agency is important for preventing HIV infection and managing the disease if infection is detected. A rural study in Uganda found that the right to rent a household allowed women to better cope with the death of a partner and HIV/AIDS (ICRW, 2007a).

Women with low, unstable incomes, or who lack control over their income and lack assets with limited means of production are unable to contract for fidelity or safe sex (International Women’s Rights Clinic, 2009). Without a little cushion, it can be difficult for women to marry or stay married to an unfaithful or abusive partner.

The key to reducing or eliminating gender-based violence (GBV), often involving sexual violence, is the institution or situation in the home that is at risk for HIV infection. A review of published data on how economic power affects women’s GBV risk in 22 of 41 countries found that ownership of household assets and women’s higher education were generally protective (Aidstar, cited in Vidas and Watts, 2008).

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Although protected property rights alone are not always sufficient in areas where the risk of violence is high, the relationship between women’s bargaining power and GBV is well established. The relationship between GBV and HIV is also well established. We also know that land rights increase women’s economic independence, thereby increasing family bargaining power.

In addition, women who have experienced property rights violations may be at higher risk of HIV infection due to lack of personal security due to reduced economic support (IFAD, 2011). Women’s weak employment status, exacerbated by displacement and landlessness, has multiple effects that contribute to the spread of HIV: reduced agricultural production and food security, the use of transactional sex to combat poverty, and the resulting increase in HIV. / AIDS infection and spread (see figure below).

Both UN Security Council Resolution 1308 on Women, Peace and Security (UNSC, 2000b) and HIV and conflict (UNSC, 2000a) note that women are equally vulnerable to HIV infection in conflict and post-conflict situations. The eastern border of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is believed to be on the brink of an HIV epidemic. About 60 percent of the militia roaming rural areas are believed to be HIV positive, and almost no women have access to services and care (UNFPA, Human Rights Watch, 2002). A survey of 1,125 women who were widowed and raped during the Rwandan genocide found that 70 percent tested positive for HIV (UNFPA, citing avega.org.rw).

In conflict and post-conflict times, women bear more responsibility for providing for themselves, their children and the elderly, but access to resources is reduced. The majority of IDPs are women and their children. Women face rape, sexual violence and torture, sometimes used as a targeted tactic by opposing forces. Victims of violence may experience rejection from their communities and physical abuse (FAO, 2008).

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Women’s economic vulnerability can increase significantly during conflict, especially in female-headed households. Research shows that the percentage of female-headed households often increases and their vulnerability increases as dependency levels increase. Women’s vulnerability to poverty is exacerbated by low-wage, low-skilled jobs in informal jobs such as self-employment or paid family labor (UN Women, 2012).

The loss of homes, income, family and social support due to armed conflict puts women in a position where they must engage in ‘survival’. Women may be forced to have sex to protect themselves or their families. life and recreation, escape to safety and access to food, housing or services.

According to Human Rights Watch, the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo has created an environment where abusive sexuality is more acceptable, and many civilians and fighters see sex as an easily obtainable service. (WHO, 2004).

As we have seen above, land and property rights ensure women’s status and economic power. Developing is one of the most important economic assets for the poor in many developing countries, providing primary production, food security and livelihoods for many households. Although reliable, comparable data are limited in many countries around the world, it is estimated that women and children constitute an increasing proportion of people experiencing homelessness and homelessness (UN General Assembly, 2009).

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Most women are highly dependent on men for access to economic resources, especially land and housing (COHRE, 2004). For most people in sub-Saharan Africa, access to land is mediated through traditional tenancy systems, which typically ensure women’s access to land through men (ibid). In most traditional systems, a woman is expected to marry

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