How Does Poverty Affect The Society – Behind all the poverty and inequality statistics shown on the previous pages are the lives of more than 1.4 billion poor people around the world who live in some of the worst possible conditions. AIDS, malaria, starvation and other deadly diseases are common. Many children die before reaching puberty, and many adults die before reaching what would be considered middle age in rich countries. Many people in the poorest countries are illiterate, and a college education remains as foreign to them as their way of life would be to us. Every now and then, what we see of the world’s poor on TV news or in movies is quickly erased from our minds. Meanwhile, millions of people on our planet die every year because they don’t have enough food, because they don’t have access to clean water or adequate sanitation, or because they don’t have access to medicine available at every CVS, Rite Aid, and Walgreens. In the United States.
As mentioned earlier, the United Nations Development Programme, the World Bank and other international organizations publish annual Human Development Index reports that show the impact of living in poor countries. This section begins by looking at some important aspects of these symptoms.
- 1 How Does Poverty Affect The Society
- 2 Income Inequality Definition: Examples And How It’s Measured
How Does Poverty Affect The Society
A country’s health status is often seen as one of the most important indicators of human development. When we look around the world, we see that global poverty is a matter of life and death. Clear evidence of this fact comes from data on life expectancy, the average number of years that citizens can be expected to live. Life expectancy varies between nations, some people die young and others die old, but poverty and related conditions affect a country’s life expectancy to an alarming degree.
Poverty And Education
A map of global life expectancy can be found at 9.7 “Average life expectancy worldwide (years)”. Life expectancy has increased in North America, Western Europe and other regions of the world and decreased in Africa and South Asia, where life expectancy in many countries is 30 years shorter than in other regions. Another way to look at the relationship between global poverty and life expectancy is found in Figure 9.8 “Global Stratification and Life Expectancy, 2006”, which shows the relative standard of living of rich countries, upper-middle income countries, lower-middle income countries. Country, and country they poor. Men in rich countries can expect to live an average of 76 years, compared to just 56 in poor countries; Women in rich countries can expect to live 82 years, while women in poor countries can expect to live only 58 years. Life expectancy in poorer countries is therefore reduced by 20 and 24 years for both sexes, respectively.
The main factor that increases life expectancy and an important indicator of human development is the infant mortality rate, the number of children per 1,000 children who die before the age of five. As shown in Figure 9.9 “Global Stratification and Child Mortality, 2006”, the child mortality rate in poor countries is 135 per 1,000 children, meaning that 13.5% of all children in these countries die before the age of five. In some African countries, the infant mortality rate is over 200 per 1,000. By contrast, the rate is only 7 per 1000 people in rich countries. So children in poor countries are almost 19 times more likely to die before they reach age 5. Compared to children in the world (13.5 ÷ 0.7). rich country
Two other important indicators of national health are adequate sanitation (disposal of human waste) and access to clean water. If people do not have adequate sanitation and clean water, they are at risk of severe diarrhoea, serious infectious diseases such as cholera and typhoid, and communicable diseases such as smallpox (World Health Organization, 2010). About 2.4 billion people in the world, almost all of them in poor and middle-income countries, do not have adequate sanitation and more than two million, most of them children, die from diarrhea each year. More than 40 million people worldwide, almost all of them in poor and middle-income countries, suffer from parasitic diseases caused by worms.
As Figure 9.10 “Global Stratification and Access to Adequate Sanitation, 2006” and Figure 9.11 “Global Stratification and Access to Clean Water, 2006” show, adequate sanitation and access to clean water have a strong correlation with a country’s economy. Poor countries are less likely than rich countries to have adequate access to both sanitation and clean water. Adequate sanitation is universally available in rich countries but only 38% of people in poor countries have access to it. Even rich countries around the world have access to clean water, but only 67% of people in poor countries have access to it.
Dealing With The Consequences Of Poverty Costs The State An Estimated €4.5 Billion Every Year
Another health symptom is nutritional deficiencies. This problem is caused by lack of good food coupled with diseases and illnesses like diarrhea which depletes the body of nutrients. About one-fifth of the population of poor countries, or about 800 million people, lack nutritious food; Looking at children alone, more than a quarter of children under five in developing countries, or a total of about 150 million, are underweight. Half of these children live in just three countries: Bangladesh, India and Pakistan; Almost half of children in these countries and other South Asian countries are underweight. Malnourished children are at increased risk of fat and muscle loss, brain damage, blindness and death; Perhaps you’ve seen video footage of children in Africa or South Asia starving to the bone. Not surprisingly, child malnutrition is a major contributor to the high child mortality rates we recently reviewed and is estimated to cause more than 5 million child deaths each year (UNICEF, 2006; World Health Organization, 2010). The box titled “Sociology Makes a Difference” revisits the issue of world hunger.
A popular theory is that there is world hunger because poor countries in Africa, Asia and elsewhere do not have enough food to feed many people. Sociologists Stephen J. Scanlan, J. Craig Jenkins, and Lindsey Peterson (2010) call this belief “false scarcity.” According to these authors, “Conventional wisdom is that world hunger exists primarily as a result of natural disasters, human stress, and food shortages” (p. 35). However, this conventional wisdom is flawed, as world hunger is not caused by a lack of food but rather by an inability to provide enough food to the world’s poor. As Scanlan and our colleagues say,
Common sense and social research show that world hunger has less to do with food shortages than with food shortages.
Food sociologists have found that social inequality, distribution systems, and other economic and political factors create barriers to access to food. (Page 35)
Income Inequality Definition: Examples And How It’s Measured
How this social perspective is important to efforts to reduce hunger around the world, these authors say. International organizations such as the World Bank and other UN agencies have long believed that hunger is the result of food scarcity, and this belief supports conventional strategies to reduce hunger around the world that focus on developing food growth and effective delivery with new technologies. Method Food But if lack of food is not the problem, then another method is needed.
Scanlan and his colleagues argue that food insecurity is not the problem that international organizations and many people believe it to be:
The main problem with claiming food availability as a problem is that scarcity is essentially a myth. Per capita, there is more food today than at any other time in human history….[E]ven in times of crop failure or regional famine there is always plenty of food around the world. (Page 35)
If the problem is not lack of food, then what is the problem? Scanlan and his colleagues argue that the real problem is food insecurity and the lack of equitable distribution of food: “Instead of food shortages, our attention should be focused on the persistent inequality that often accompanies food growth” (p. 36).
Trust In Public Institutions: Trends And Implications For Economic Security
What is this discrimination? Hunger is especially prevalent in poor countries, the author says, noting that these countries do not have the money to buy large quantities of food from abroad. Poverty in these countries, then, is the inequality that drives world hunger, but also inequality between men and women. For example, women around the world are more likely to suffer from hunger than men, and hunger is higher in countries with high levels of gender inequality (as measured by gender differences in education and income, among other needs). Hunger spreads not only in poor countries but also among ethnic minorities in rich countries. In their research findings, these sociologists found that when countries are democratized, when political rights are protected, and when gender and racial disparities decrease, hunger increases, hunger decreases.
If inequality causes world hunger, they add, then efforts to reduce world hunger will succeed only to the extent that they recognize the importance of inequality in it: “To approach inequality, law is necessary.
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