How Does Music Influence Behavior – Acoustic environment plays an important role in urban open spaces, however, studies on the effects of acoustic environment perception on population behaviors are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate how music, considered an important element of the soundscape, affects crowd behavior in urban open spaces. On-site observations were conducted in a 100 m × 70 m urban leisure plaza in Harbin, China. Normal music was used to study the effects of sound environment perception on crowd behavior. Then these behaviors were classified into two movement categories (crossing and walking) and non-movement behaviors (sitting). The results show that the passage in the city leisure square with music was more concentrated than without music. Without music, 8.3 percent of passers-by walked close to the edge of the square, compared to zero percent with music. In terms of passing speed, no significant difference was observed with the presence or absence of background music. Regarding the effect of music on walking in the square, the average area and perimeter when background music played were lower than background music. The average speed of subjects exhibiting walking behavior with background music in the field was 0.296 m/s slower than when no background music was played. For those exhibiting sedentary behavior, when there was no background music, population density did not change as a function of distance from the sound source. When music was present, it was observed that population density of sedentary behavior decreased with increasing distance from the sound source.
The term “urban open space” can describe many types of open areas (Marcus and Francis, 1998). One definition says that, as equivalent to development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource synonymous with neither idle land nor parks and recreation areas. Another definition is that an open space is a land and/or body of water whose surface is open to the sky, deliberately acquired or publicly arranged to serve conservation and urban design functions in addition to providing recreational opportunities. (Myers, 1975; Thompson, 2002). . In modern cities, the benefits that urban open space provides to citizens can be divided into three basic categories: recreation, ecology, and aesthetic value (Brander and Kotse, 2011). Sound quality is considered a key part of the ecological/sustainable development of urban open spaces (Zhang et al., 2006). However, the healthy environment of urban open spaces is often not satisfactory due to the lack of attention to human behavior during the planning and management of spaces (Meng and Kang, 2016). Therefore, research on the effect of sound environment perception on crowd behavior will be important for landscape research in this field. According to the International Standards Organization, “soundscape” is defined as an acoustic environment as perceived/experienced in context (ISO 12913-1, 2014). A key aspect of the context
How Does Music Influence Behavior
Individual behaviors generally refer to a person’s attitude or performance in certain situations. Their actions can be mostly random, subject to the influence of the environment (Jia, 2012). In contrast, collective behavior refers to the attitude or behavior of a population in an environment. They can consist of certain regularities that depend on the influence of the environment (Yuan and Tan, 2011; Xie et al., 2013). Therefore, rather than individual behaviors, population behaviors are usually investigated in studies of urban open spaces (Marosic, 2011; Lepour et al., 2016; Meng and Kang, 2016). Levine and others (1936) proposed the following formula that represents the interaction between an individual and his environment: B = f (P, E), where B represents behavior. P stands for people, including individuals and groups. And E represents the environment in which these people live. According to this formula, both the social characteristics of users and the local environment should be considered in human behavior studies. Previous studies have indicated that recreational behavior can be influenced by users’ cultural background, age, and different local areas (Floyd, 1998; Payne et al., 2002; Guegen et al., 2008).
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Many different aspects of population behavior can be examined to draw conclusions. These may include behavioral features such as movement and action (Wang, 2014). Movement characteristics, for example, are characterized as locomotion or immobility, the former including crossing and walking and the latter including sitting (Chen, 2009). and characteristics of actions, such as sitting, standing, looking and wandering (Lepore et al., 2016). The number of participants is also an important factor, that is, whether the behavior involves one person, two people or several people (Jia, 2012). The intrinsic characteristics of such behaviors can also be examined, such as whether they are necessary, spontaneous or social (Gehl, 1987). The frequency and location of the behavior is also important, such as whether the behavior is neighborhood or urban (Chen, 2009). In addition, factors such as population behavior in a healthy environment, cooperative behavior, dispositional behavior, avoidance behavior, and other behaviors that are not influenced by the environment are all important angles that reveal important information about population behaviors (Jia, 2012). ).
The acoustic environment can influence human perception and human perception can influence the behavior of the population in indoor and outdoor spaces. For example, previous studies have shown that ambient music affects shopping speed and time spent in shopping centers (Milliman, 1982). Other studies have also shown that eating and talking can be influenced by background music in dining areas (Figel et al., 2014; Meng et al., 2017a). In urban open spaces, studies have shown that passers-by stand and watch music-related activities, while the amount of exercise behavior is little changed by music-related activities (Meng & Kang, 2016). Another study showed that the presence of music can increase the length of stay in the tunnel compared to silence, where classical music produces the longest stay (Aletta et al., 2016). It was also found that in the case of sound stimulation in a suburban audiovisual environment, the viewing range of study participants is significantly more diffuse than when there was no sound stimulation (Ren and Kang, 2015). Previous studies have mainly focused on the effect of acoustic environment on individual performance (Zakaria et al., 2014; Alta et al., 2016; Lepour et al., 2016). However, studies on the effects of some typical sound sources on the behaviors of populations classified as moving or non-moving are limited.
The sound of music is a common sound source in urban open spaces (North et al., 2004; Styns et al., 2007). Studies have shown that when people listen to music, their emotions fluctuate and the effect is to change their behavior (Orr et al., 1998). Studies have shown that different languages, tempos, melodies and sound levels of music can have different effects on emotions, mental activities and physical reactions. In general, languages and speed are two important factors (Sakharov et al., 2005; Carpenter and Potter, 2007). Other studies have shown that fast music is associated with greater activation than slow music (Gomez & Danoser, 2004; Natarajan et al., 2004). For example, a study investigating participants with headphones showed that fast music increased walking speed, while slow music caused slower walking speed (Franěk et al., 2014).
The aforementioned studies show that the acoustic environment can influence the behavior of the population. Based on this finding, the current research focuses on the effects of music, an important element of the soundscape, on specific crowd behaviors, classified as moving, including passing and walking around, or non-moving, including sitting. . Previous studies show that path and speed are important features that describe locomotive behavior, while population density is important in describing non-locomotive behavior (Ye et al., 2012; Lavia et al., 2016). Therefore, the purpose of this study is: (1) Can music change the direction or speed of transition or walking around behavior? We hypothesize that the speed of music-walking increases, the path of music-walking becomes closer to the music, and the area or perimeter of music-walking decreases, as some previous studies have shown. pointed out that music-related activities can increase the speed of passing or walking in some urban open spaces and (2) whether music can decrease or increase sedentary behaviors in urban open spaces. We hypothesize that sitting behavior increases with decreasing music interval, because eating and talking behaviors can be influenced by music. A city leisure square was chosen as a location and the music was chosen. Additionally, three typical behaviors were selected for further on-site analysis and on-site observations were used to collect data. To achieve the goal of the research, several different approaches were explored. First, this study investigated the effect of music on the path and speed of passing behavior. Second, it specified the effect
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