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How Does Hiv Affect The Body Physically

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How Does Hiv Affect The Body Physically – One of the first symptoms of HIV may be a rash. Read on to learn more about the range of skin conditions associated with HIV and AIDS.

Acne and other skin conditions have long been linked to HIV — before highly effective HIV treatments became available, up to 92 percent of people living with the virus experienced skin symptoms to some degree, according to the Mayo Clinic

How Does Hiv Affect The Body Physically

A rash can still be one of the first symptoms of HIV. Other skin conditions associated with HIV/AIDS include:

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“Every Tuesday, we (our dermatologists) see people with HIV because this disease has so many cutaneous manifestations,” said Monica Gandhi, MD, medical director of the HIV Clinic in Ward 86 at San Francisco General Hospital. An important component of care . Skin is an important component of HIV. “

According to Dr. Gandhi, the most common HIV drugs globally are integrase strand transferase inhibitors such as dolutegravir or bictegravir, often combined with drugs called reverse nucleoside transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) use.

These drugs prevent the virus from converting RNA into DNA, thereby preventing it from replicating. “By preventing the virus from replicating, the virus remains at very low levels in the body and does not deplete important infection-fighting immune cells, called CD4 cells,” Gandhi said.

But even people with well-controlled HIV can experience skin problems. “Thanks to advances in medicine, most skin problems are dry skin, rosacea (pigmentation and small bumps in the center of the face) and dandruff, rather than the more severe cases of immune-related diseases,” Gandhi said.

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Gandhi recommends talking to a dermatologist about moisturizers and other reputable products that can be used to reduce HIV skin symptoms.

“I have a lot of patients with HIV who are doing great, but they’re struggling with HPV because at some point, they got HPV and their CD4 count was low,” said Carrie Kovarik. Viruses can cause some damage.”

Dr. Kovarik says warts around the nails, mouth, or genitals are common in people with HPV and HIV who at some point have low CD4 counts. “HPV can do a lot of damage when your CD4 count is low. Even if a patient is healthy now, they’re going to have a lot of problems if they get HPV,” she said.

Skin problems can become a particular concern if people with HIV — even well-controlled ones — start taking immunosuppressants to treat another disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Kovarik said. The problem. This can lead to an outbreak of HPV or herpes viruses such as herpes zoster (which causes shingles) and herpes simplex types 1 and 2 (which causes sores on the lips, mouth, or genitals).

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“I tell my patients that you need to talk to your HIV doctor before taking other medications,” Kovarik said.

Some types of HPV can also cause cancer and can be screened for with a skin exam. Anal cancer is most common in people infected with HIV and HPV, Kovarik said.

“That’s our area as dermatologists,” she said, adding that men who have sex with men (MSM) face more risks when their sexual partners become infected with HIV than men who have sex without HIV. Anal cancer risk increases ninefold. sexual partners. HIV.

HIV infection also increases the risk of non-melanoma skin cancers, especially basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

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According to a 2019 research paper published in the journal Cancer Therapy & Research, 25% of human cancers are caused by viruses and bacteria that affect the immune system. People with suppressed immune systems, including people with HIV or AIDS, are at a much higher risk of developing cancers caused by viruses or bacteria.

In addition to HPV, certain types of herpes viruses can cause skin, liver, lung, spleen and gastrointestinal cancers.

Kaposi’s sarcoma, a disease that causes cancer cells to form in the skin or gastrointestinal mucosa, is always caused by human herpesvirus 8, according to Johns Hopkins University Medical Center. Also called Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). People with AIDS are 20,000 times more likely to be infected with KSHV than the general population.

“This can happen even in people with high C4 counts, and it’s a cancer that can be treated with chemotherapy,” Gandhi said. “If you have purple spots on your skin, you need to get evaluated.”

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HIV destroys CD4 cells, which are responsible for keeping people healthy and protecting them from infection and disease. As HIV gradually weakens the body’s natural defenses, signs and symptoms may occur.

HIV targets cell types that normally fight off invaders like HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys infected CD4 cells and produces more virus to infect more CD4 cells. T cells or helper cells are also called CD4 cells.

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Without treatment, this cycle can continue until the immune system is compromised, leaving a person susceptible to serious illness and infection.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the final stage of HIV. During this stage, the immune system is greatly weakened and the risk of contracting favorable diseases is much greater.

However, not all people infected with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The sooner a person receives treatment, the better the outcome.

The immune system protects the body from disease and infection. White blood cells protect the body from viruses, bacteria, and other organisms that can make people sick.

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A few days after being exposed to the virus, people with HIV may develop a flu-like illness that lasts for several weeks. This relates to the first stage of HIV, which is called the acute phase of infection, or acute HIV.

People with HIV may not have many severe symptoms at this stage, but they often have large amounts of the virus in their blood because the virus reproduces quickly.

The next stage is called the chronic disease stage. It can last up to 10 to 15 years. People with advanced HIV infection may show signs or symptoms during this stage.

Kaposi’s sarcoma, another possible complication, is a cancer of the walls of blood vessels. It is rare in the general population but more common in people with advanced HIV infection.

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Symptoms include red or dark purple sores in the mouth and skin. It can also cause problems with the lungs, digestive tract, and other internal organs.

HIV and AIDS also put people at a higher risk of developing lymphoma. An early symptom of lymphoma is swollen lymph nodes.

HIV makes it difficult for people to fight off respiratory illnesses like colds and flu. At the same time, HIV-positive people may develop related illnesses, such as pneumonia.

If HIV is not treated, late-stage infection puts people with HIV at greater risk for complications from infections, such as tuberculosis and a fungal infection called Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP).

How Does Hiv Affect Your Immune System?

HIV also increases the risk of lung cancer. This is a result of weak lungs due to various respiratory problems related to a weak immune system.

People living with HIV are more likely to develop high blood pressure. HIV also increases the risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH is a form of high blood pressure in the arteries supplying blood to the lungs. Over time, pulmonary hypertension puts pressure on the heart and can lead to heart failure.

Tuberculosis is an airborne bacteria that affects the lungs. It is the leading cause of death among AIDS patients. Symptoms include chest pain and possibly severe cough

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