How Does Culture Influence Consumer Behaviour – Marketers have always been concerned with the aspect of consumer behavior. This is because an in-depth understanding of the function has many advantages for business experts. Extensive concept knowledge allows marketers to determine how customers feel about a particular product. It provides information about how they value and select goods and services from different manufacturers and suppliers (Mooij, 2010). In addition, marketers can see how end users are influenced by other people around them. Significant others in this case include family members, friends, and vendors. In addition, environmental influences on the behavior of these consumers are evident (Solomon, 2006).
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How Does Culture Influence Consumer Behaviour
The term “consumer” has different definitions. For example, in the field of marketing, the phrase refers to buying and purchasing actions and patterns. For this purpose, it is used to refer to consumer decisions before and after purchase. For her part, Solomon (2006) defines the consumer as a field of study. For this purpose, it is considered the practices associated with the acquisition, use and disposal of goods, services and ideas (Solomon, 2006).
Understanding Consumer Behavior To Convert More Customers
From their side, consumer behavior is defined as the actions of individuals. Activities are related to the process of receiving, using and discarding monetary goods and services. Extensive research shows that a wide variety of factors influence customer behavior. They include social, cultural, psychological and personal factors. Some of these items are beyond the seller’s control. However, business experts still need to take them into account to better understand consumers.
In this paper, the author examines the way culture influences consumer behavior. To achieve this, the author will explore the topic using the information in the article published by Kwon Jung and Ah Keng Kau. The article by Jung and Kau (2004) is entitled “The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior: Ethnic Group Differences in a Multiracial Asian Country”. In order to bring the reader to the topic in depth, the author uses supplementary information from a number of consumer and marketing magazines. Literature is used to support the findings and conclusions of Jung and Kau (2004). In addition, the author refers to Solomon’s textbooks.
In their article, Jung and Kau (2004) emphasize the importance of understanding the influence of culture on consumer behavior. According to the researchers, marketers should not ignore these effects. This is because when companies go global, they sell their goods and services to people from different cultures and backgrounds. Given the apparent relationship between culture and consumer behavior, extensive research has been conducted on various ethnic groups to understand this concept. According to Hofstede and McCrae (2004), individuality is shaped by culture. Therefore, facet is a key determinant of consumer behavior.
From a wide range of studies, scientists have found the presence of different patterns of behavior among different ethnic groups. People tend to have different ideas about aspects such as possible risk, brand loyalty and novelty. High-risk customers tend to be confident about what they are buying. Less risky customers can afford a certain degree of uncertainty when purchasing goods.
Consumer Behavior: Definition, Factors And Methods |
Culture determines the success or failure of products and services in the market. A business that produces goods that are desired by a specific group of people has a better chance of success in the market. However, marketers sometimes face the challenge of predicting how a particular product will do. According to Solomon (2014), the relationship between consumer behavior and culture is bidirectional. Although culture is a major source of influence, marketers must consider three primary aspects that are not culturally bound. They include perceived suitability, quality and packaging. Perceived fit involves determining the right distribution channels for the product.
Quality determines whether consumers buy the product or not (Peter & Olson, 2008). Packaging creates a connection between customers during acquisition. The unique packaging design attracts more people from all areas around the world. Because of this, there are higher levels of success.
According to Jung and Kau (2004), culture consists of shared beliefs, customs, and attitudes that are passed down from one generation to the next. All these elements are responsible for influencing the standards of evaluation, perception and society. Therefore, culture tends to have a large influence on the decision to purchase items. One must behave in a similar manner to other members. Some marketers believe that people who live close to each other in terms of geographic regions are similar and share the same preferences (Balabanis & Diamantopolous, 2008).
However, this is not the case. The reason is that individuals have partly different cultural values. Additionally, individuals from certain countries have a higher tendency to purchase items compared to others. In most East Asian countries, such as Singapore, shopping is considered a leisure activity. Therefore, it is important for salespeople to become familiar with the cultural characteristics of different groups. Thanks to this, they will be able to create the required brands for products and develop goods that suit a specific market.
Consumer Behavior And The Influence Of The Self On Consumer Behavior
A multicultural society consists of people of different races. Despite the groups living in the country, they practice their own unique cultural values, attitudes and beliefs. Many studies have been conducted to understand how people in multiracial countries differ when shopping. However, Jung and Kau (2004) argue that most research is conducted in American and European countries. Few scholars have focused on Asian countries. That’s why the duo chose to do a subcultural study in Singapore. The nation provides a perfect setting for studying Asian consumer behavior (Peter & Olson, 2008). This is due to the fact that the country is a multiracial society composed of three large groups. These include the Chinese, Indians and Malays.
During the colonial period, Singapore was under British rule (Kongsompong, 2006). At that time, three ethnic groups already lived in the country. Despite living in the same nation and communicating with each other, they had different customs, values and religious practices and beliefs. In addition, the groups had different lifestyles. To ensure that cultural ties are maintained, the Singaporean government emphasized the need for the Chinese, Indians and Malays to maintain their practices (Kongsompong, 2006). Despite the cultural variations, Singapore has managed to maintain national harmony since its independence.
People of Chinese descent tend to rate their public reputation highly in the context of interpersonal and social interactions. The term “face” is considered a factor that deserves respect in society. According to Lin, Xi, and Lueptow (2013), a bad public reputation has a huge emotional impact on an individual. In addition, the Chinese tend to maintain strong relationships with each other. Correlation is characterized by connections and reciprocity. Therefore, the trait of personal loyalty is more valued than organizational attachment.
Constancy is considered a virtue. In Chinese culture, people learn the importance of loyalty to family and relatives when they are at a tender age (Mokhlis & Salleh, 2009). This aspect is further pursued in a commercial context. Many ethnic group studies show that Chinese consumers maintain their loyalty to a particular supplier. The reason is that constantly switching would destroy the public reputation or face of the provider. For this reason, Chinese customers try to avoid switching suppliers. According to Lin et al. (2013), the aspect of loyalty observed in culture has a fundamental influence on customer behavior.
Consumer Behavior Theories
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In Chinese culture, interpersonal relationships are based on reciprocity. The concept emphasizes that kindness from others must be reciprocated. Therefore, the Chinese rather focus on maintaining the symmetry of debits and credits. When it comes to buying products, some people only buy when there are special occasions or ceremonies. Jung and Kau (2004) noted that the concept of face greatly influences consumer behavior. Among the Chinese, public reputation influences individuals to buy products with prestigious brands. Some customers leave the manufacturer’s tags on their items, such as classic suits, when purchasing.
In the Chinese community, family dynamics tend to influence consumer behavior. The family is seen as a refuge from the harsh aspects of life. Therefore, it should be well protected. When purchasing products, the Chinese population is attracted to items with advertisements that have a family orientation (Solomon, 2014). Compared to the West, the case is different. Most consumers
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