How Does Coffee Affect The Liver – Alessio Calabrò1, Anna Caterina Procopio2, Francesco Primerano3, Tiziana Larussa2, Francesco Luzza2, Laura Di Renzo4, Antonino De Lorenzo4, Paola Gualtieri4, Ludovico Abenavoli2
Mailing address: Prof. Ludovico Abenavoli, Department of Health Sciences, University of “Magna Graecia” Catanzaro, Viale Europa, Catanzaro 88100, Italy. Email: [email protected]
- 1 How Does Coffee Affect The Liver
- 2 How Caffeine Affects Your Brain
- 3 Does Everyone Get Health Benefits From Coffee?
How Does Coffee Affect The Liver
Accepted: 25 June 2020 | First Decision: August 18, 2020 | Revised: September 3, 2020 | Accepted: 8 September 2020 | Published: 12 October 2020
Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
© Author 2020. Open Access This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium. or format, for any purpose, even commercial, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author and source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes have been made.
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases and is associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits, characterized by excessive calorie intake from a diet high in sugar and fat, and lack of exercise. In recent years, the incidence of this pathology has increased, resulting in the increased attention of hepatologists, endocrinologists, diabetologists and nutritionists. In this context, dietary patterns adopted by patients with NAFLD have become an increasingly investigated criterion. Diet is now considered an important factor in the treatment of NAFLD because it has been shown that certain functional foods play a beneficial role. This includes coffee whose health effects have been widely proven. Here we describe the beneficial effects of coffee consumption reported in the NAFLD literature.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver, followed by steatosis, possibly leading to fibrosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and eventually cirrhosis. Currently liver disease and particularly NAFLD affects approximately 25% of the population worldwide, being the leading cause of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries.
Lifestyle modifications such as maintaining a healthy diet and regular physical activity are important to reduce the incidence of NAFLD.
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. In particular, it is very important to eliminate all dietary compounds that can increase NAFLD, for example fructose, saturated fatty acids, carbohydrates with a high glycemic index and foods with a high sodium content.
. Promotion of a balanced diet and reduction of excess body weight are also important in the context of this clinical condition. Losing at least 5% of body weight is effective in reducing liver fat
In recent years, the Mediterranean diet has also been recognized as standard therapy in the treatment of NAFLD.
Among functional foods, we think coffee is the most promising; This drink is appreciated and consumed all over the world
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. Various beneficial effects are associated with moderate and regular consumption of coffee. In particular, consumption of this drink has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of type II diabetes mellitus, digestive disorders, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease and gallstones.
Coffee, one of the most consumed beverages in the world, contains a large amount of substances and polyphenols that contribute to making coffee a functional food due to its beneficial activities. Among the main polyphenols in coffee, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid [Figure 1] have shown promising antioxidant properties.
The most representative and well-known coffee compound is undoubtedly caffeine [Figure 1], an alkaloid that occurs naturally in the leaves, seeds, and fruits of coffee, tea, cocoa, cola, and guarana plants. Caffeine is absorbed in the stomach and first part of the intestine within 10 minutes after ingestion, reaching maximum concentrations in the bloodstream after 45-60 minutes. Once absorbed by the body, caffeine is metabolized in the liver where it is converted into three dimethylxanthines: paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline which contribute to enhancing its effects.
In recent years, natural compounds have been the subject of many studies to identify their beneficial activities, and in this case promising antifibrotic effects have been attributed to caffeine [Figure 2].
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In particular, caffeine exhibits promising antifibrotic effects as a result of a series of biochemical processes initiated by liver cell stimulation that leads to intracellular F-actin and cAMP expression, inhibition of focal adhesion kinase, inhibition of α-smooth muscle actin (α-sma). , and up-regulation of PPAR-α (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) receptors with function in fat deposits, shown in Figure 2.
In HepG2 cells involved in the synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol in the liver, caffeine has been shown to be able to reduce the expression of transcription factor genes sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and 2 (SREBP1c and SREBP2). This downregulation is a very promising finding as it may facilitate the reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation commonly associated with NAFLD. Additionally, caffeine also caused a dose-dependent decrease in 3-hydroxy 3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptors.
Research in animal models has shown that the use of caffeine can reverse liver damage caused by a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were divided into four groups and treated for 16 weeks as follows: control group; HFD Group; HFD group and 20 mg caffeine; HFD group and 30 mg caffeine. HFD-induced liver injury was determined by evaluating alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, bilirubin, triglycerides, and cholesterol. The results showed that caffeine treatment reduced the increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, bilirubin and hepatic mRNA fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a phenolic compound derived from the combination of caffeic acid and (L)-quinic acid. It belongs to the polyphenol family, a substance with strong antioxidant activity. It is known that the polyphenols found in coffee in the form of chlorogenic acid increase the production of antioxidant substances.
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. In addition, caffeine increases peroxiredoxin-1 which has a positive effect on ROS, reducing oxidative stress at the hepatocyte level.
The synergistic effect of polyphenols and caffeine on hepatocytes also reduces insulin resistance, while the polyphenols found in caffeine have antifibrotic effects on the liver, which has been widely highlighted in studies on obese rats.
. It is present in high concentrations in green coffee and other foods typical of the Mediterranean diet.
. Roasting coffee produces a compound called hydroxy-hydroquinone, but reduces its bioavailability. It is estimated that one liter of coffee provides 500 to 800 mg of CGA.
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Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic acid found in coffee, in some grains such as oats, wheat and rice, in artichokes and in many types of fruit. FA is a trans-cinnamic acid derivative and is capable of interfering with the expression and activity of cytotoxic enzymes such as nitric oxide synthase, caspase and cyclooxygenase-2. Ferulic acid has been proposed as a treatment for neurodegenerative, cardiovascular and diabetic disorders.
In addition, it should be emphasized that interest in this compound has increased due to its potential therapeutic effects of reducing the accumulation of triglycerides and cholesterol in hepatocytes, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties.
Evaluated the effects of green coffee extract (GCE) on lipid profile and adiponectin levels in patients with NAFLD. A double-blind, randomized study was conducted in 48 patients between 20 and 60 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) between 25-35 kg/m2.
. In this study, patients were divided into two groups, one group was treated with GCE 400 mg/die and the other group was treated with placebo. Liver enzymes, lipid profile, adiponectin concentration, and degree of hepatic steatosis were analyzed at the beginning and end of the experiment. The results showed that GCE supplementation significantly reduced BMI (MD: -0.57; 95% CI: -0.84 to -0.29; P < 0.001). In addition, the study showed an increase in HDL levels (MD: 7.06; 95% CI: 0.25 to 13.87; P < 0.05) and a decrease in serum blood triglyceride levels (MD: -37.91; 95% CI: -72.03 to ). -3.80; P = 0.03) and total cholesterol (MD: -13.33; 95%CI: -26.04 to -0.61; P < 0.05) compared to the control group [Table 1].
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GCE supplementation improves serum lipid profile and BMI in individuals with NAFLD. GCE may be useful in controlling NAFLD risk factors
There is no evidence of an association between caffeine consumption and the prevalence of hepatic steatosis or serum ALT concentrations.
Regular coffee consumption but not espresso was an independent protective factor against liver fibrosis in European patients with severe obesity.
No relationship has been demonstrated between coffee consumption and the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, although coffee consumption may have a beneficial effect on the development of fibrosis.
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Coffee consumption reduces liver stiffness, indicating reduced fibrosis and inflammation regardless of disease state. This study adds further evidence to the idea that coffee may be beneficial in patients with liver disease
In the general population, frequent consumption of coffee and herbal tea is inversely associated with liver stiffness but not with steatosis.
NAFLD: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; HCV: hepatitis C virus; HBV: hepatitis B virus; GCE: green coffee extract; ALT: alanine aminotransferase
The effect of caffeine consumption on liver fat concentrations and ALT values was evaluated in a total sample population of 1,452 subjects, including 789 women and 663 men, with a mean age of 42.3 years. After filling an informative questionnaire about personal data and lifestyle
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