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How Does Climate Change Affect The Ocean

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How Does Climate Change Affect The Ocean – Climate change says the oceans have long been affected by human overheating. As the planet’s largest carbon sink, the oceans absorb excess heat and energy from rising greenhouse gas emissions trapped in the Earth’s system. Today, the oceans absorb about 90 percent of the heat generated by increased emissions.

When too much heat and energy causes the oceans to heat up, fluctuations in temperature lead to parallel effects, including melting of ice, rising sea levels, warming waves, and rising acidity of the oceans.

How Does Climate Change Affect The Ocean

These changes will ultimately have a lasting impact on marine biodiversity and the livelihoods and livelihoods of coastal communities and beyond, including the 680 million people living in the low-lying coastal areas of nearly 2 billion. People who live in the middle of the Megacities of the world. Living off the coast, almost half of the world’s population (3.3 billion people) depend on fish for protein and nearly 60 million people work in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide.

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Sea levels have risen in recent decades due to the increasing loss of ice in the world’s polar regions. The latest data from the World Meteorological Organization shows that the average global sea level will peak in 2021, rising by an average of 4.5 mm per year between 2013 and 2021.

Along with the rise of tropical cyclones, rising sea levels have led to serious events such as strong storm surges and coastal hazards such as floods, erosion and landslides that are now expected. That happens at least once a year in many places. Such events occur once a century throughout history.

In addition, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that areas such as the western tropics, the western Pacific, the North Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Southwest and the South Atlantic will face significant sea level rise. Mark. Up

Ocean heat waves have doubled in frequency and have become longer, stronger and wider. The IPCC says human influence is a major driver of ocean warming observed since the 1970s.

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Most heat waves occurred between 2006 and 2015, causing widespread coral outflows and reef degradation. By 2021, almost 60 percent of the world’s oceans will experience at least one global warming wave. The Environment Program says all of the world’s coral reefs could change color by the end of the century if the water continues to heat up.

Coral discoloration occurs when reefs lose microscopic algae that sustain their life under stress. The most recent global bleaching event began in 2014 and has well expanded to 2017 – spread across the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans.

Rising temperatures increase the risk of irreversible loss of marine and coastal ecosystems. Today, a wide range of changes are being observed, including damage to coral reefs and mangroves that support ocean life, and migration of species to latitudes and altitudes where water can be colder. .

The latest estimates from the Education, Science and Culture Organization warn that more than half of the world’s marine species could reach extinction by 2100. At 1.1 ° C today, about 60 percent of the world’s marine ecosystems. Defective quality or sustainable use. A warming of 1.5 ° C threatens to destroy 70 to 90 percent of the coral, and a 2 ° C increase means almost 100 percent loss, which is an irreversible point.

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Climate change is here. There are many ways to correct what is happening and what is going to happen. See the ActNow campaign for more guidance. As climate change tightens its grip, the impact is getting worldwide. The world’s oceans play an important role and so far have produced most of the carbon dioxide and heat beyond human activity. But it is also vulnerable. Already some major changes are taking place and the weather disturbance to our oceans seems to be getting worse.

About 90% of the excess heat trapped by greenhouse gases is eventually absorbed by the world’s oceans. Because the oceans are so large, fluctuations in sea temperature may seem small – the ocean floor has warmed just over 0.5C in the last century. That is still enough to cause significant disturbance and speed up the heating.

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Everything expands as it heats up, thickens and takes up more space. The ocean is no different. In fact, between 1993 and 2010, thermal expansion is believed to increase sea levels by an average of 1.1 mm per year, which is equivalent to a large portion of the total increase we have seen.

The total sea level rise for the period 1993-2010 averaged 3.2 mm annually, with the contribution of various sources, including water stored on land in the form of snow. (Graphic: Manuel Bortoletti / China Dialogue Ocean)

Hot water also affects the atmosphere above. Rising sea temperatures are associated with intensification of hurricanes and tropical cyclones, which could lead to more severe Category 4 or 5 storms hitting islands and coastal areas. Hot water can also dissolve less carbon dioxide, meaning more is left in the atmosphere to accelerate global warming.

As on land, rising temperatures in the oceans create dangerous heat waves. It occurs when abnormal weather conditions or currents cause the water temperature to rise above average for at least five consecutive days. But they can last for months or years. A tidal wave called “The Blob” hung around the North Pacific from 2013-2015, killing millions of seabirds off the west coast of the United States.

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When carbon dioxide dissolves in seawater, it reacts to form carbonic acid: a weak but sufficient acid that alters the pH of seawater, which is naturally alkaline. Since the Industrial Revolution, it has been estimated that soluble carbon dioxide has reduced the average pH of the upper layers of the oceans by 0.1 pH units from about 8.2 to 8.1 (7 is neutral).

This change does not sound much, but since the pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, it actually represents an increase of almost 30% of the acidity. This has some important implications for the chemistry of seawater and the ecosystems that depend on it.

Increased acidity is bad news, especially for geese and other forms of marine life that use calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons. The more acidic water may contain less of this mineral, making it less available for calcifying organisms such as oysters, mussels, sea urchins, shallow corals, deep sea corals and calcareous plankton. Worse, chemical changes push existing carbon structures to dissolve.

Corals are particularly vulnerable. Experiments on a small patch of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef show that artificially reducing carbon dioxide levels in seawater, thus restoring pH to pre-industrial levels, increases coral formation by 7%. Then, as scientists increased the amount of carbon dioxide and thus the ocean pH dropped to the expected level by the end of the century, calcium was reduced by a third.

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As climate change continues, many scientists believe it is inevitable that massive glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica will collapse and melt completely, eventually pouring enough water into the oceans to raise global sea levels. Many meters. It will take time – hundreds, maybe thousands of years – but the melting is accelerating. The UN climate agency now predicts that under a low emission scenario, the average sea level will rise between 61cm and 1.1m by the end of the century.

By 2050, rising sea levels could push flooding on land that now has at least 300 million people, mostly in Asia.

Villagers in the Sundarbans repair dams damaged after the sea flooded contiguous rice fields. The delta borders the Indo-Bangladesh border. The homes of an estimated 4.5 million people are vulnerable to rising sea levels. (Photo by Peter Caton / Greenpeace)

Coastal ecosystems will also be affected. Coastal and swamp environments face more severe and regular flooding and erosion, while vulnerable freshwater habitats, including swamps and lakes – necessary for bird breeding – are flooded by seawater.

Climate Change Puts Pressure On Sea Turtles

The sea ice that forms when seawater freezes in winter, each pole melts and becomes thinner and thinner every summer. The melting of the ice does not significantly contribute to sea level, but it poses a major problem for animals that rely on it for their habitat. Polar bears, in particular, need sea ice to hunt, and studies show that many of the 25,000 bears still estimated in the Arctic are struggling. Animal colonies around the southern Beaufort Sea in northeastern Alaska and Canada were reduced by 40% between 2001 and 2010.

Ocean currents are vulnerable to the effects of climate change. At that moment, those currents act as massive global transport belts: as the wind blows through the atmosphere from the hot equator to the cold poles, they pull water with them. Cool by

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