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How Do Gender Roles Affect Society

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How Do Gender Roles Affect Society – Culture is part of everyday life. It is an integral part of a community – a group of people who live together in a specific area and share a culture. Culture is the set of values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, language, behaviors and material objects that people share and are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Culture must be learned; It is not biologically based. In fact, culture is all aspects of society that are transmitted socially, not biologically. Culture operates at many levels, from the daily actions of individuals (micro level) to norms operating in an organization such as a school or business (meso level), to beliefs and practices associated with very large groups of people, including entire societies (Hall E. 1984). At all levels, elements of culture affect all aspects in which individuals are born and live, shaping their attitudes, emotional and behavioral reactions and perceptions of what is happening in their environment (Hall E. 1984). The same applies to gendered roles in society. Cultural dimensions often reflect differences in gender roles. This essay deals with the importance of communication in the transmission of these two gender roles, the cultural dimensions that account for role differences in different cultures, issues of discrimination, and the ethics of gender differences.

Cultures consist of both tangible and intangible elements. Material culture refers to the physical objects produced by people in a particular culture, including tools, clothing, toys, artwork, and dwellings. Intangible culture refers to a culture’s ideas, including values ​​and beliefs, accumulated knowledge about how to understand and navigate the world, and norms or “standards” of appropriate behavior. Collectively, a culture’s ideas and practices constitute a whole way of life that affects how people eat, work, love, think, worship, dress, learn, play, and live. Because material objects often have symbolic (non-material) meaning, the material and non-material aspects of culture are often interrelated. For example, we may think that we are making purely individual statements when we style our hair, but in reality, we are heavily influenced by the ideas and practices of our culture.

How Do Gender Roles Affect Society

A culture’s ideas, especially its values, beliefs, knowledge, and norms, are what give a culture its unique characteristics. A value is a deeply held principle or standard that people use to make judgments about the world, especially what is desirable or valuable. But values ​​change over time and cannot fully explain people’s behavior. While the values ​​of a culture are usually a set of broad principles, its beliefs are specific beliefs or opinions that its people generally accept as true (Hall E. 1984). Our cultural beliefs compel us to understand the fundamental things in the world in concrete terms. In the context of culture, knowledge is the range of information, awareness, and understanding that helps us navigate our world. People often take for granted the knowledge they have gained about their own culture. They learn to speak, read and write the language of their culture; How to dress appropriately for work; And how to behave correctly in different situations. Through this knowledge, we learn the importance of communication in the transmission of gender roles. Anthropologist Edward T. Hall, the father of intercultural communication, said: “Culture is communication and communication is culture.” Differentiation of gender roles is a product of communication, but these roles can also influence communication within a culture. Communication is how attitudes, ways of thinking, attitudes toward actions, and decisions spread across societies and cultures (Hall E. 1984). All of these factors influence human behaviors and behaviors that have moral consequences. What communication means is moral responsibility. In fact, all forms of communication verbal, non-verbal, implicit and explicit are processes that teach us to be male or female, which means to behave according to gender (Mulvaney, B.M. 1994).

Gender Roles: Attitudes And Behavior

Norms are a culture’s rules and expectations for “appropriate” behavior. (Behavior that violates a culture’s norms is often labeled as deviant.) In a sense, norms act as a bridge between a culture’s ideas and its practices because they suggest which practices are appropriate. To believe that God exists, for example, is to share a cultural belief. In contrast, attending weekly religious services conforms to the cultural norm because it reflects expected behavior. As society changes, culture evolves to cope with new situations. These norms had to be created over time and last a lifetime. Western cultures and ideologies distinguish between sex and gender (Mulvaney, B.M. 1994). They intentionally share these terms because they are not synonymous, but rather serve to define the anatomical and cultural differences between men and women. The most important difference between the two is that gender is a biological concept whereas gender is a social construct. Gender is determined by genetics and biology, while gender is produced and reproduced by society’s values ​​and assigned roles (Anghel, 2010, cited in Onea, 2014). Gender is constant, while gender can vary over time and across cultures, gender is also an individual property, while gender is a social and relational quality in society (Anghel, 2010, cited in Onea, 2014). The writer and French philosopher Simone de Beauvoir said: “A man is not born, but becomes a woman.” From childhood, we learn a variety of language practices that are culturally associated with gender-expected behaviors. Religious, mythical, philosophical, and political subjects convey values ​​and norms about gender roles, including what you can and cannot do as a man or woman, and how you should do it (Beauvoir S., 2006). Language itself also reflects social gender roles, as for women, communication is communication through conveying emotions and feelings. Whereas for men, communication is a form of control, by maintaining or demonstrating their independence and leadership, to improve their current status or even through information transfer (Beauvoir S., 2006).

Emphasizing the differences between gender roles, this also leads to the consequences of discrimination. There is a natural norm that creates differences on a biological level, but there are also cultural norms that are limited by what is “normal” in a certain culture. This can lead to differences in the assumption and assignment of gender roles. The law defines gender discrimination as “any difference, exclusion, limitation or preference based on sex, which has its purpose or effect in the recognition, exercise or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms or rights recognized by law. conditions. , political, economic, social, cultural or any other sphere of public life” (Law 324/2006). For example, masculinity and femininity reflect the degree of interchangeability of gender roles in society. Hofstede said: “A society is considered masculine if gender emotional roles are clearly distinct: male should be authoritarian, strict and focused on material success, while women should be modest, gentle and concerned with the quality of life. A society is considered feminine if gender roles overlap: both men and women should show modesty, calmness and concern for the quality of life” (Hofstede et al. 2012, p.141).The conclusion is that the assignment of gender roles based on gender is the result of cultural and religious interpretations that include historical and environmental factors throughout history.

Differences in cultural attributions and perceptions of gender roles do not automatically reflect “inequality” or even “discrimination” between the two sexes. On the contrary, discrimination refers to the violation of human rights and freedom of will based on the cultural belief that women are inferior to men. This inequality gave way to feminism. Feminism is a doctrine that aims to give women power, freedom from all subjugation and dominant male models, improvement of female identity, its authentic core, revealed many problems, including power inequality between the sexes, the subordinate position of women in the family. and society, underestimating its role in social stratification and employment (Melichioree et al., 2004). Differences between women and men at the genetic or cultural level emphasize specific natural aspects (men are competitive, self-confident, bold, create visual and auditory associations, while women have higher emotional intelligence, networking skills and abstract thinking) or cultural aspects (for women, this is the case). more .what they are is important, and for men it is more important what they do), which does not justify the differences in value at all (Stanculescu, 2009, Hofstede et al., 2012). Being physically or mentally different does not mean being superior or inferior; What feminism is trying to convey in its movement. Ethical issues of gender difference can be resolved by guaranteeing the identity of people in their singularity, through legislative initiatives that ensure equivalent rights for both sexes, based on respect for their differences (Irigarayan, 2010). Equality does not mean assigning male characteristics to women, but recognizing specific female characteristics as attributes for what they are, without devaluing them by comparison.

Human behaviors and norms are subject to double determinism, both biological and cultural. This becomes general when considering the comparison of sexes and sexes. These differences are communicated and reflected. cultural dimensions

Understanding How Gender Roles Impact The Community

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