Factors That Influence Human Behavior – Although many of these factors are beyond the marketer’s control, they should be considered when creating a marketing plan.
Cultural factors have the greatest impact on consumers. People are attached to their culture and cultural norms are very difficult to change. Social factors influence how individuals behave in society and what society values. Depending on personal factors such as age, lifestyle, and occupation, consumers behave differently in the marketplace. Psychological factors reflect cultural, social, and personal factors, but an individual’s beliefs, attitudes, motivations, and learning ultimately determine purchase decisions.
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Factors That Influence Human Behavior
Cultural factors have the greatest influence on consumer behavior. Marketers must understand the role of customer culture, subculture, and social class in shaping consumer behavior.
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Culture is the set of basic values, beliefs, desires, and behaviors that members of a society learn from their families and other important institutions.
Children in the United States are typically taught or exposed to values such as achievement and success, activity and participation, efficiency and practicality, progress, material comfort, individuality, freedom, humanity, youth, physical fitness, and health.
Every society has its own culture. The influence of culture on shopping behavior can vary greatly from country to country. Marketers must consciously adapt to these differences. Failure to do so can lead to ineffective marketing or costly mistakes.
For example, American community businesses trying to promote themselves in Taiwan have found this out the hard way.
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Looking for more foreign trade, they came to Taiwan with green baseball caps as gifts. It turned out that this trip was planned a month before Taiwan’s election, and green was the color of the opposition party.
To make matters worse, visitors learn that according to Taiwanese culture, if a man wears green, it means his wife will be unfaithful.
The head of the team’s delegation later said: I don’t know what happened to the green hat, but the trip helped us understand the extreme differences in our cultures.
Marketers involved in international marketing must understand the culture of each foreign market and develop marketing strategies accordingly.
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For example, the cultural shift toward increased interest in health and fitness has spawned huge industries such as sports equipment and apparel, low-fat and more natural foods, and health and fitness services. The shift to informality has increased the demand for casual wear and basic home furnishings.
As the desire for leisure has increased, so has the demand for convenience goods and services such as microwave ovens and fast food.
Every culture is made up of smaller subcultures. A subculture refers to a group of people with a common value system based on common life experiences and situations.
Subcultures consist of nations, religions, ethnic groups, and geographic regions. Subcultures have a significant impact on marketing. These constitute a significant segment of the market and marketers often develop products and marketing programs tailored to their needs.
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A consumer’s buying behavior is influenced by the subculture to which he belongs. The subculture influences his dietary preferences, clothing choices, recreational activities, and career goals.
Every society has a social class structure. A social class is a relatively permanent and orderly part of society, whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
Social class is not determined by a single factor like income. This is determined by a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth and other variables.
However, the boundaries between classes in society are not rigid and rigid. People can move into higher social classes or enter lower social classes.
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Marketers are interested in social class because people belonging to certain social classes tend to have similar purchasing behaviors. Social classes have distinct product and brand preferences in apparel, home furnishings, leisure, and automobiles.
Consumer behavior is influenced by various social factors. These factors are consumer, subgroup, family, social role and status and can be described as follows.
Many subgroups influence an individual’s behavior. A group is defined as two or more people who interact to achieve individual or common goals. A group to which a person belongs and has direct influence is called a membership group. Membership groups include primary and secondary groups.
The secondary group includes organizations such as religious groups, professional associations, and trade unions, which have more formal, less regular interactions.
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People are often influenced by groups they do not belong to. This is called a reference group, and it serves as a direct or indirect point of comparison or reference in shaping an individual’s attitude or behavior.
For example, an aspirational group is a group that an individual wants to be a member of. The teenage footballer hopes to one day play for Abahan Krira Chakra. Although there is no direct connection between him and the team, he is part of this group.
Target market reference groups are important for marketers. This is because these groups expose people to new behaviors and lifestyles, influence people’s relationships and self-concept, and create conformity pressures that can influence people’s product and brand choices.
Marketers of products and brands with strong group influence must develop ways to reach opinion leaders in relevant information groups.
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Opinion leaders are people in an information group who influence others because of special skills, knowledge, personality traits, or other characteristics. Marketers seek to identify opinion leaders about their products and brands and direct marketing efforts to them.
Family members can greatly influence consumer behavior, making the family the most important consumer purchasing organization in society.
Therefore, marketers consider the role and influence of husband, wife and children in purchasing various products and services.
The buying roles of different family members are changing with evolving consumer lifestyles. Marketers must also recognize that such roles vary widely across countries and social classes.
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Individuals belong to several groups. A person’s place in each group can be determined by role and status.
For example, in a family, a person plays the role of husband and father. In the company, you assume the role of an executive.
Roles define the activities that people are expected to perform, and these expectations reflect the needs of those around them. Each role has a status that reflects the society’s overall respect for that role. A general tendency of people is to choose products that represent their status in society.
Personal characteristics greatly influence the buyer’s decision. These characteristics are the buyer’s age and life cycle stage, occupation, economic status, lifestyle, personality and self-concept.
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People buy different types of goods and services at different times of their lives. The demand for various goods and services often depends on age. Buying patterns are also influenced by the stage of the family life cycle.
The table below lists the stages of the family life cycle. Marketers often define target markets based on life cycle stages, then develop appropriate products and marketing plans for each stage.
A buyer’s occupation has a big impact on what they decide to buy. Marketers try to identify occupations with above-average interest in their products and services.
A company may specialize in the production of products needed for certain professions. Therefore, computer software companies develop various products for brand managers, accountants, engineers, lawyers and doctors.
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The economic situation of the buyer affects the choice of products. Marketers track trends in personal income, savings and interest rates. If revenue figures indicate a recession, marketers can take steps to redesign, reposition, and price closely.
People belonging to the same subculture, social class and profession can have completely different lifestyles. Lifestyle is a person’s way of living, expressed by the psychological state of the person.
It involves measuring the main AIO dimensions of consumers: activities (work, hobbies, shopping, sports social events), interests (food, fashion, family, leisure) and thoughts ( themselves, social issues, business, products) It is possible.
Lifestyle encompasses more than a person’s social class or personality. It describes a general pattern of human behavior and interaction in the world. The concept of lifestyle can be used by marketers to understand the changing values of consumers and what influences their purchasing behavior.
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Each person has their own characteristics that influence their buying behavior. Personality refers to specific psychological characteristics that are a consistent and constant response of a person to his environment.
Personality is typically characterized by self-confidence, dominance, openness, autonomy, defensiveness, flexibility, and aggressiveness. Marketers use personality to analyze consumer behavior toward a particular product or brand choice.
For example, coffee makers have found that people who drink a lot of coffee are more sociable. So the Maxwell House ad shows people relaxing and socializing over a cup of coffee.
Many marketers use the term self-concept to refer to personality. Self-awareness is also called self-image. A basic self-concept is that people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identity.
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Therefore, to better understand consumer behavior, marketers must first understand the relationship between consumer self-concept and ownership.
There are four main psychological factors that influence an individual’s buying behavior: These factors include: Motivation, Awareness, Learning, Beliefs and Attitudes. This can be expressed as follows:
People have many needs. Some of these requirements
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