Factors That Influence Food Choices – Chapter 1 Nutrition, Food Choices, and Health Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without prior written permission of McGraw-Hill Education.
1.1. Describe how our eating habits are influenced by the taste, texture and appearance of food; routines and habits; early experience in customs; advertising; nutrition and health issues; restaurants; social change; and economic as well as physiological processes affected by meal size and composition. 1.2 Identify the dietary and lifestyle factors that contribute to the 15 leading causes of death in North America. 1.3. Define the terms nutrition, carbohydrate, protein, lipid (fat), alcohol, vitamin, mineral, water, phytochemical, kilocalorie (kcal), and fiber.
- 1 Factors That Influence Food Choices
- 2 Social Determinants Of Health At Cdc
- 3 Solved Intake For One Day. Include All Foods, Snacks, And
- 4 Honest Food Principles
Factors That Influence Food Choices
1.4 Determine the total calories (kcal) of a meal or diet using the energy-nutrient weight and calorie content, convert to English metric units, and calculate percentages, such as the percentage of calories from fat in the diet. 1.5. Understand the scientific method used to develop hypotheses and theories in the field of nutrition, including determining nutrient requirements. 1.6. List key features of the North American diet, eating habits that often need improvement, and key “nutrition and weight status” goals in the Healthy People 2020 report.
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1.7 Describe the basic plan for health promotion and disease prevention and what you expect from good nutrition and a healthy lifestyle. 1.8. Identify food and nutrition issues relevant to college students.
What factors influence our food choices? How are hunger and appetite different from how they affect our desire to eat? What factors affect satiety?
Copyright © McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. Social needs Social network of family and friends Psychological needs Food taste, texture and appearance preferences Food and culture Food availability Food cost Education, occupation and income Food marketing Health and nutrition concerns, knowledge and beliefs Routines and habits Lifestyle © BananaStock / PunchStock RF
Taste, texture and appearance are the most important factors that determine our food choices. Early influences that expose us to a variety of people, places, and events constantly influence our food choices.
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Routines and habits are tied to certain food choices. Eating habits, food availability and convenience strongly influence choice. Advertising is an important media tool to satisfy consumer interest in food.
Restaurant food is often high in calories, large portions and poor in nutritional value compared to home cooked food. Time and convenience have become major influences on food choices and result from lifestyles that limit time spent preparing food.
Economics play a role in our food choices. The 2012 Food and Health Survey shows that after taste, cost is now the second reason why people make the food choices they do. Nutrition drives people’s food purchases. Those who tend to choose healthy foods are health-oriented and also lead an active lifestyle.
12 Why are you so hungry? Hunger – primarily a physiological (internal) desire to find and eat food, governed primarily by internal eating cues. Appetite – primarily a psychological (external) influence that prompts us to find and eat food, often without apparent hunger.
Social Determinants Of Health At Cdc
13 Satiety Definition: a state of no longer wanting to eat; a sense of satisfaction. No more desire to eat Regulated by brain’s feeding center Satiety center
How do we define nutrition? What are the three leading causes of death in which diet plays a role?
15 Nutrition is the science that relates food to health and disease. It includes the processes by which the human body takes in, digests, absorbs, transports and eliminates food substances.
Provides energy, calories Provides building blocks Important for growth and maintenance Essential nutrient Has a biological function.
Solved Intake For One Day. Include All Foods, Snacks, And
17 Why study nutrition? Diet is a lifestyle factor in maintaining optimal health Obesity is considered the second leading preventable cause of death in the United States Poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for chronic disease.
Heart disease (23.7% of all deaths) Cancer (22.9%) Stroke (5.1%) Diabetes (2.9%) accounts for about 2/3 of all deaths.
19 Nutritional Terms Cancer: A condition characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells. Cardiovascular (heart) disease: A general term that refers to any disease of the heart and circulatory system; usually characterized by the deposition of fatty material in the blood vessels (hardening of the arteries), which in turn can lead to organ damage and death.
20 Nutritional Conditions Cholesterol: A waxy lipid found in all cells of the body; it has a structure containing several chemical rings; is found only in foods of animal origin Chronic: When talking about a disease, this term indicates that the disease process, once it has developed, is slow and permanent.
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21 Dietary Guidelines Diabetes: A group of diseases characterized by high blood sugar, type 1, is associated with insufficient or no secretion of the pancreatic hormone insulin and requires daily insulin therapy. certain body cells; may or may not require insulin therapy
22 Nutrition Terms Hypertension: A condition in which blood pressure is persistently elevated; Obesity, inactivity, alcohol consumption, excessive salt intake, and genetics can contribute to kilocalorie (kcal): a unit of measurement for the energy content of food, although kcal refers to a unit of 1,000 calories, it is commonly called a calorie.
Osteoporosis: loss of bone mass associated with ageing, genetics and malnutrition Risk factor: a term used to refer to factors that contribute to the development of the disease (e.g.
What are the six classes of nutrients? What are the three general functions of nutrients in the body?
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Macros provide calories – required in grams in the diet. Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids/fats Micro does not provide calories – they are needed in milligram or microgram amounts in the diet. Vitamins Minerals
Fats and oils – both plant and animal sources Insoluble in water Animal fats (solid at room temperature) Should be limited in our diet as they can raise blood cholesterol levels which contribute to cardiovascular disease.
Main structural material in the body Component of blood cells, enzymes and immune factors Formed when amino acids are linked together. Food sources are animals and plants. Most North Americans eat up to twice as much protein as the body needs to maintain health.
Fat soluble – A, D, E and K Water soluble – B and C Cooking destroys water soluble more easily than fat soluble Contains no usable energy
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Many bodily functions are not destroyed in the cooking process. Major minerals and trace elements Perform electrolyte functions. Does not produce calories/energy
Environment for temperature regulation Most of our body weight Recommended intake is 9-13 cups per day. Found in food Does not provide calories/energy
Phytochemicals are chemicals found in plants; some may contribute to a reduced risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease in people who use them regularly; concerns about their excessive use in the marketing of certain foodstuffs
35 Food Sources Phytochemicals Garlic, onions, beans Allyl sulfides/organosulfurs Oranges, red and yellow fruits and vegetables Carotenoids Oranges, lemons, grapefruits Monoterpenes Chili peppers Capsaicin Flax seeds, berries, whole grains Lignans Cruciferous vegetables, vegetables (capsules, broccoli) Isothiocyanates Soy beans, other legumes, cucumbers, other fruits and vegetables phytosterols
Honest Food Principles
36 Food Sources Phytochemicals Citrus fruits, onions, apples, grapes, red wine, tea, chocolate, tomatoes Flavonoids Soybeans, other legumes Isoflavones Tea Catechins Blueberries, strawberries, raspberries, grapes, apples, bananas, nuts Polyphenols Red, blue and purple plants ( blueberries, eggplants) Anthocyanosides Onions, Bananas, Oranges Fructooligosaccharides Grapes, Peanuts, Red wine Resveratrol
38 calories Humans get the energy we need for forced and voluntary physical activity from a variety of sources: Carbohydrates 4 kcal per gram Fat: 9 kcal per gram Protein: 4 kcal per gram Alcohol: 7 kcal per gram, not considered an essential nutrient
39 calories defined Small c “The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius” Energy in food is expressed in calories (capital C) on food labels Small c Calories are small. heated so that food energy is more conveniently expressed in kilocalories (kcal), which is equal to 1000 calories. 1000 calories = 1 kcal = 1 (food) calorie
Carbohydrates 46 g x 4 = 184 kcal Fat gram x 9 = 126 kcal Protein 45 g x 4 = 180 kcal Alcohol gram x 7 = kcal Total 490 kcal
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Based on carbohydrate, fat and protein content: one serving of whole wheat bread contains 81 kcal ([15 x 4] + [1 x 9] + [3 x 4] = 81). There is 80 on the label, which indicates that the calorie value has been rounded up.
43 percent percent (%) refers to a part of the total if the total is 100 parts. Example: If you scored an 80% on your first nutrition exam, you answered 80 out of 100 questions correctly. Question Answer What is 6% of 45? % = 0.06, so 0.06 x 45 = 2.7 What percent of 99 is 3? /99 = 0.03 or 3% (0.03 x 100)
44 Example: Joe ate 15% of the recommended amount for an adult
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