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Does Hiv Affect The Kidneys

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Does Hiv Affect The Kidneys – Pneumonia caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common opportunistic infection that affects people with HIV or AIDS. Adobe Stock

Advances in HIV treatment and antiretroviral drugs now allow people living with HIV to live long and healthy lives. However, complications from HIV can occur, especially in patients who do not follow therapy or those who do not even know they have the virus. The latter group makes up about 13 percent of people living with HIV, according to HIV.gov.

Does Hiv Affect The Kidneys

By itself, HIV, which infects an important immune system cell called a CD4 cell, does not cause many life-threatening symptoms. What makes this dangerous is that the virus can eventually destroy CD4 cells – also known as T-cells, white blood cells that are essential for a healthy immune system. A weak immune system leaves the body vulnerable to deadly opportunistic infections and diseases – a sign that AIDS, the final stage of the HIV virus, has taken hold.

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People with poorly treated HIV or AIDS are at high risk of infection from many different viruses and microbes, including bacteria, fungi and parasites. These opportunistic infections (OIs) are forms of illness that do not usually affect people with a healthy immune system that is able to fight them off.

These days, OIs are less common in this population than before, due to effective antiretroviral treatment (ART), which helps maintain the immune system by reducing the amount of HIV in the body.

If your CD4 count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood, you are at the highest risk of developing OI. Some OIs can be held if the CD4 count is below 500.  A normal CD4 count is between 500 and 1200.

Despite the decrease in OIs in people with HIV, these infections still occur. Some people with HIV don’t know they have the virus, they may not be treated well, or, despite treatment, their viral load (the amount of HIV in the body) is not high enough to keep up with the virus. the system is working normally.

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In addition to ART, your healthcare provider will likely recommend other ways to help prevent some OIs. These include taking certain medications and vaccinations, avoiding undercooked or unpasteurized foods, being aware of what germs you are exposed to, and preventing exposure to other sexually transmitted infections.

HIV does not appear to attack nerve cells, but it can affect cells called glia that protect and support nerves. While the inflammation associated with the virus damages the CNS, people with advanced HIV or AIDS may experience a variety of symptoms, such as confusion, forgetfulness, behavioral problems, headaches, weakness, and numbness in the extremities.

Opportunistic infections affecting the central nervous system (CNS) include cryptococci, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, cytomegalovirus which can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and

Other neurological complications unrelated to infections are possible, such as AIDS dementia complex or HIV-related dementia, CNS lymphomas, neuropathies (nerve disorders), vacuolar myelopathy (a condition of the spinal cord), and various psychological and neuropsychiatric disorders. .

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Nearly half of people diagnosed with HIV in the United States are over age 50, and people with HIV have higher rates of certain underlying medical conditions — both of which can increase the likelihood of developing HIV. are prone to serious illness if they get COVID-19.

While people with HIV should get vaccinated against COVID-19), even if they are fully vaccinated, immunocompromised people should take the precautions recommended for the unvaccinated, such as wearing a mask.

The CDC recommends that everyone with HIV receive two primary doses of the Pfizer-BioNtech or Moderna vaccine for COVID-19. If you have advanced or untreated HIV, the CDC recommends three primary doses. In addition, everyone living with HIV should receive an updated bivalent booster.

Although ART reduces opportunistic infections and the above conditions, HIV drugs can cause complications or side effects. It varies from person to person and depends on the treatment regimen, but most side effects can be managed.

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Over time, diabetes, high cholesterol, problems with kidney and liver function, and osteoporosis can sometimes occur with the use of HIV drugs.

In general, the side effects of current ART are less severe than before. Today, there are many more options when it comes to HIV drugs, and the benefits of treatment outweigh the risks of side effects. If you experience side effects, it is important to discuss treatment alternatives with your doctor.

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Author Gaetano Alfano Gaetano Alfano Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, *, † , Gianni Cappelli Gianni Cappelli Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, †, Francesco Fontana Francesco Fontana Scilit Preprints.org Google District Luca Luca Di Lullo Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Biagio Di Iorio Biagio Di Iorio Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, Antonio Bellasi Antonio Bellasi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5 and Giovanni Guaraldi Giovanni Guaraldi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar

Department of Surgical, Medical and Dental Morphological Sciences, Department of Nephrology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy

Va Disability For All Kinds Of Kidney Problems And Secondary Conditions

Received: 13 July 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly improved the life expectancy of infected subjects, creating a new epidemiological environment for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). People living with HIV (PLWH), who have a long life expectancy, now face many age-related conditions as well as the side effects of long-term exposure to ART. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common comorbidity in this population. CKD is a chronic progressive disease that can progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and affects quality of life and risk of death. Here, we review the current understanding of renal involvement in people living with HIV, mechanisms and risk factors for CKD, and strategies for early detection of renal dysfunction and optimal CKD care.

Despite epidemiological data reporting a decrease in new cases of HIV infection, its prevalence is likely to increase worldwide as effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased survival in people living with HIV (PLWH). , which creates a new epidemiological environment in people living with HIV [1].

Nowadays, the life expectancy of highly educated people living with HIV who are regularly treated with combination ART has reached that of their untreated counterparts [2]. Therefore, aging people living with HIV are at risk of many age-related diseases, including chronic kidney disease (CKD) [3]. In addition to age, there are many risks

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